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Table 4 Indicators for policy implementation: comparison of the proportion (%) of low income countries that implemented the respective sub-policies for promoting rational use of medicines in 2003 and 2007 [30]

From: The current status and trend of clinical pharmacology in developing countries

Year 2003 2007
Availability of STGs   
 • STGs at National level 67.3% 89%
 • STGs at Primary Health level 75% 72%
 • NMF for EML 56.4% 57%
Education and information   
 • EML in Med-Curriculum 67.3% 65.9%
 • STG in Med-Curriculum 62.2% 59.5%
 • CME for doctors 37.7% 51.1%
 • Provided Med. Inform. to prescribers 32.1% 36.2%
 • Public Education on Antibiotics 37.0% 44.4%
Key policies and regulations to promote rational drug use
 • ADR monitoring 32.7% 50.0%
 • DTC in General Hospitals 38.8% 41.5%
 • DTC in Regional Hospitals 36.2% 31.4%
 • AMR-policy 23.6% 20.0%
  1. Key: ADR, adverse drug reactions; AMR, antimicrobial resistance; CME, continuing medical education; DTC, drug therapeutics committees; EML, essential medicines list; LIC, low income countries; NMF, national medical formulary; STG, standard treatment guidelines.