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Table 3 Developmental toxicology endpoints

From: Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies

Endpoints Methods of measurement
General growth, morphology of body regions, organs and tissues Classical teratology
Organization of organs & tissues Microscopic veterinary or human pathology
Cellular composition of tissues Relative composition of major cell types; histopathology, histochemistry, histomorphometry
Finer cellular and tissue profiles Tissue content of stem cells and progenitor cells; inflammatory/migratory cell populations; extracellular matrix/ cell matrix interactions; assess cell cycle kinetics, critical cellular process (e.g., apoptosis and autophagy)
Molecular changes within cells DNA, RNA, proteins (including processing, turnover, etc.), lipids and glycosylation; genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, microRNAs/siRNAs
"Accessible" or "translatable" (can be used in lab models and in humans) biomarkers - Imaging (ultrasound, MRI, CT, etc.)
- Functional assessments (behavior, treadmill, learning, cognition, renal function studies, lung function studies, grip strength, etc.)
- Tissue biopsies, male and female gametes/follicular fluid; amniotic fluid; blood, urine
- Routine chemistries, hematology,
- Circulating cells (e.g., bone marrow stem cells, leukocytes, other stem/progenitor cells)
Biomolecules in blood plasma, urine including macromolecules, small molecules - Specific assays for individual molecules
- "Broad Net" approaches of proteomics, metabolomics, siRNAs, etc.
Integrative Physiology/Systems Biology Multiple opportunities to link in vitro and animal models to humans and to use mathematical models to dynamically integrate multiple biological parameters