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Table 3 Comparison of histopathology, chemistry, toxicity and observed gene response among metals

From: Whole adult organism transcriptional profiling of acute metal exposures in male Zebrafish

Metal Predicted Histopathology target GO biological process KEGG pathway Genes References
All (Ni, Co, Cr) Effects on heme carriers (respiration) n/a Cell cycle regulation and apoptosis Cell cycle regulation and apoptosis mcm4, gadd45bl, orc6l [57]
Ni Oxidative damage to DNA None Oxidative stress response Oxidative stress response Periredoxin (zgc:110343), thioredoxin (zgc:92903); txnl1; pdia4; pdia4; pdip5; hif1a; xbp1; abcf2; pfkfb3; il1b; egln3; hk2; hspa5; pdia4, dnajb11, dnaja4, jnajb11, ahsa11, hsp70l, hspe1, hsp90b1, hspa4l [61–66. 70–91]
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and UPR (unfolded protein response) n/a dnaja4, jnajb11, ahsa11, hsp70l, hspe1, hsp90b1, hspa4l; hspa5; pdia4; dnajb11 [6169]
Protein synthesis and translation (DNA replication processes) Protein synthesis and translation mcm4, orc6l; mcm3, mcm5; rbb4 [5760]
Co Inducer of hypoxic response Olfactory organs: inflammatory, degenerative, metaplastic, necrotic lesions Oxidative stress response Oxidative stress response gss (zgc:101574); gclc; zgc:110010; psmd3, psmd7, psma6b, psma5, psmc3, psmc4, psmd11b, psmd1, psmc6, psme3, psmc1b [40, 7274]
Inflammation and acute phase stress response Increased metabolic detoxification Protein serum amyloid A (zgc:103580 ); il1b; c/ebp; atf3 [7578]
Cr Oxidizing agent; induces oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species Gills: hyperplasia, necrosis, hemorrhage, inflammation Inflammation and acute phase stress response Inflammation and acute phase stress response pcna, nfkbiaa, hamp1, ptgs2a, ptgs2b, ptges; dusp2; dusp5; dusp1; gadd45g; hmox1; socs1; egr2; hpx; il1b; c/ebp; atf3 [52, 53, 7578]
Intestine: atrophy of mucosal folds, necrosis, inflammation Ribosome biogenesis Cell cycle regulation and apoptosis ccne2, rrm2, zgc:77806; pcna; stat3, p53 [8991]
   Pharynx: atrophy, mononuclear cell infiltration Metabolic depression Metabolic pathways g6pca, gys2, fabp1a, abcc2; hnf3 α, hnf3 β, hnf1 β, tcf8, bmal, ppargc1, lxr α, coup-tfi, gata-6 [8082, 8488]
  1. Summary of gene responses consistent with histopathology and predicted chemistry and toxicity of metals after 24 hr exposure.