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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants diagnosed with cardiovascular disease

From: Prognosis of concomitant users of clopidogrel and proton-pump inhibitors in a high-risk population for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Characteristics Death Re-hospitalization for cardiovascular disease
  CVD* cohort AMI** cohort CVD* cohort AMI** cohort
  Number (%) Number (%) Number (%) Number (%)
Total 2219   673   2285   695  
Men 1227 55% 365 54% 1269 56% 374 54%
Women 992 45% 308 46% 1016 44% 321 46%
Age group, years         
<65 291 13% 57 8% 303 13% 62 9%
65-75 425 19% 95 14% 446 20% 98 14%
75-85 844 38% 280 42% 872 38% 292 42%
> = 85 659 30% 241 36% 664 29% 243 35%
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding         
I. Bleeding before entry 1730 78% 513 76% 1773 78% 527 76%
II. Bleeding before entry and during the follow up 49 2% 22 3% 44 2% 20 3%
III. New bleeding during the follow up period 86 4% 41 6% 71 3% 33 5%
IV. Bleeding after endpoints 354 16% 97 14% 397 17% 115 17%
Cardiovascular disease history         
No 1315 59% 456 68% 1361 60% 475 68%
Yes 904 41% 217 32% 924 40% 220 32%
Comorbidities (number)         
0 1382 62% 328 49% 1426 62% 340 49%
1 628 28% 244 36% 643 28% 250 36%
2 173 8% 81 12% 178 8% 85 12%
≥3 36 2% 20 3% 38 2% 20 3%
Drug exposure         
Current clopidogrel and PPIs§ 309 14% 95 14% 403 18% 116 17%
No current PPIs or clopidogrel 861 39% 211 31% 905 40% 226 33%
Current only PPIs 847 38% 316 47% 812 36% 308 44%
Current only clopidogrel 202 9% 51 8% 165 7% 45 6%
Patients with diagnosis of bleeding before entry         
Current clopidogrel and PPIs 252 14% 78 15% 244 13% 77 14%
No current PPIs or clopidogrel 659 37% 154 29% 702 39% 164 30%
Current only PPIs 714 40% 265 50% 713 39% 266 49%
Current only clopidogrel 154 9% 38 7% 158 9% 40 7%
subtotal 1779   535   1817   547  
  1. *CVD cardiovascular disease; **AMI acute myocardial infarction; §PPIs proton-pump inhibitors.