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Table 2 Risk of death or recurrent cardiovascular events in 90 days follow-up among cardiovascular disease patients

From: Prognosis of concomitant users of clopidogrel and proton-pump inhibitors in a high-risk population for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Drug exposures Cardiovascular disease cohort Acute myocardial infarction cohort
  Death Cardiovascular disease Death Cardiovascular disease
  §HR (95% CI) §HR (95% CI) §HR (95% CI ) §HR (95% CI)
Total cohort     
Current clopodogrel and PPI** (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
No PPI and no clopidogrel 2.36 (1.39-4.00) 1.54 (1.05-2.24) 3.13 (1.47-6.68) 1.77 (0.92-3.41)
Current only PPIs 2.02 (1.19-3.44) 1.11 (0.75-1.65) 1.93 (0.91-4.11) 1.02 (0.52-1.99)
Current only clopidogrel 1.14 (0.53-2.45) 1.80 (1.15-2.83) 1.88 (0.70-5.03) 1.88 (0.85-4.08)
Patients with diagnosis of bleeding before entry*     
Current clopodogrel and PPI(reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
No PPI and no clopidogrel 2.30 (1.33-3.98) 1.54 (0.98-2.40) 3.30 (1.47-7.41) 1.65 (0.78-3.47)
Current only PPI 2.05 (1.18-3.54) 1.04 (0.65-1.65) 2.12 (0.95-4.73) 0.80 (0.37-1.72)
Current only clopidogrel 1.25 (0.57-2.72) 1.84 (1.07-3.16) 2.26 (0.82-6.26) 1.78 (0.70-4.57)
  1. *cohort members had history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding before entry into the cohorts. Results for patients who had any other hospitalizations for upper gastrointestinal bleeding were not shown due to the small number of cases.
  2. **PPIs proton-pump inhibitors.
  3. §HR harzard ratio; CI confidence interval. All of the proportional models were adjusted for age (<65, 65–74, 75–84, ≥85), sex (male, female), history of cardiovascular diseases (yes, no), history of bleeding (yes, no), and co-morbidity (0, 1, 2, 3 or more).