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Table 3 Physicians’ and nurses’ knowledge about the causes of antibiotic resistances and antibiotic resistant bacteria

From: Knowledge and beliefs on antimicrobial resistance among physicians and nurses in hospitals in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Variables Physicians (n = 175) Nurses (n = 210) Total P-value
  Yes N (%) Yes N (%) Yes N (%)  
Causes of AMR     
Widespread or over use of antibiotics promotes AMR 162 (92.5) 147 (70) 309 (80.5) 0.001
Usage of broad- spectrum antibiotics promote AMR 155 (88.5) 147 (70) 302 (78.4) 0. 001
Bacterial mutations cause of AMR 144 (82.3) 132 (62.8) 276 (71.6) 0.001
Poor hand washing practice in hospitals spread AMR 68 (38.8) 90 (42.8) 158 (41) 0.56
Poor infection control in hospitals spread AMR 104 (59.4) 114 (54.3) 218 (56.6) 0.40
Patient poor adherence promote AMR 160 (91.4) 171 (81.4) 331 (86) 0.002
Sub-standard quality of antibiotics 138 (78.8) 158 (75.2) 296 (76.8) 0.42
Examples of antibiotic resistant bacteria in hospitals     
Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) 39 (22.3) 5 (2.5) 44 (11.4) 0.001
MDR-TB 7 (4.1) 85 (40.4) 92 (23.9) 0.001
P. aeruginosa 10 (5.7) 0 10 (5.7)  
Local factors for development of AMR     
Self-prescription by patients 133 (76.0) 73 (34.7) 206 (53.5) 0.001
Lack of access to local antibiogram data 28 (16.0) 19 (9.0) 47 (12.3) 0.04
Prescribers’ poor awareness on AMR 27 (15.4) 8 (3.8) 35 (9.2) 0.001
  1. Key: AMR: Antimicrobial resistances and MDR-TB: multi-resistant drug resistant tuberculosis.
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