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Table 2 Concentrations of total carnitine and its precursors (BB and TML) in plasma, liver and gastrocnemius muscle of lean rats (Lean), obese Zucker rats fed a control diet (Obese Control) or obese Zucker rats fed a diet supplemented with 780 mg niacin/kg diet (Obese Niacin) for 4 wk 1

From: Pharmacological doses of niacin stimulate the expression of genes involved in carnitine uptake and biosynthesis and improve the carnitine status of obese Zucker rats

  Lean Obese control Obese niacin
Plasma (μmol/l)    
Total Carnitine 62.4 ± 2.1a 39.5 ± 1.1c 48.4 ± 2.9b
γ-Butyrobetaine (BB) 0.75 ± 0.04a 0.36 ± 0.04b 0.42 ± 0.05b
Trimethyllysine (TML) 0.89 ± 0.03a 0.64 ± 0.02b 0.67 ± 0.03b
Skeletal muscle (nmol/g)    
Total Carnitine 730 ± 26a 602 ± 28b 681 ± 28a
γ-Butyrobetaine (BB) 10.9 ± 0.5a 8.42 ± 0.40ab 7.31 ± 0.65b
Trimethyllysine (TML) 73.7 ± 11.5 58.7 ± 10.5 58.8 ± 3.8
Liver (nmol/g)    
Total Carnitine 289 ± 10b 298 ± 7b 334 ± 12a
γ-Butyrobetaine (BB) 3.32 ± 0.35a 2.12 ± 0.13b 1.93 ± 0.17b
Trimethyllysine (TML) 16.5 ± 1.6 13.5 ± 0.7 14.1 ± 0.8
  1. 1Data are expressed as means ± SEM. n = 10 rats/group. a,bValues with different superscript letters differ, P < 0.05.
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