Mean serum BDNF (ng/mL) at baseline and the after treatment presented as the mean ± SEM. The asterisk indicates a significant within group difference according to Mixed ANOVA model with Bonferroni test. Delta values (serum BDNF before treatment minus serum BDNF after pretreatment) were performed using a Mixed ANOVA. The error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. aIndicates that the treatment did not induce an effect that was significantly different between treatment groups (P > 0.05).