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Table 3 Socio-economic characteristics associated with the use of self-medication, prescribed medicine and antibiotics to treat common colds (CCs) and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) (n = 17,450)

From: Pharmacoepidemiology of common colds and upper respiratory tract infections in children and adolescents in Germany

  Self-medication1 Prescribed medicine1 Antibiotic use1
  OR OR OR
Sex    
Boys Reference Reference Reference
Girls 1.04 (0.87, 1.25) 1.04 (0.86, 1.26) 1.52 (1.05, 2.18)
Age (years)    
0-10 Reference 2.27 (1.81, 2.85) Reference
11-17 2.40 (1.87, 3.07) Reference 1.45 (1.01, 2.08)
Region    
East Reference 1.23 (0.94, 1.60) 1.67 (1.19, 2.34)
West 1.14 (0.90, 1.45) Reference Reference
Immigration background   
Yes Reference 1.60 (1.21, 2.11) 2.37 (1.51, 3.73)
No 1.64 (1.28, 2.11) Reference Reference
Social status    
Low Reference 1.58 (1.25, 1.99) 1.57 (0.93, 2.64)
Intermediate 1.44 (1.16, 1.80) 1.55 (0.98, 2.53) 1.55 (0.87, 2.75)
High 1.77 (1.42, 2.20) Reference Reference
  1. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were obtained from multivariate regression models 1includes WHO-ICD-10 codes J00, J01.0, J01.9, J02.0, J02.9, J03.0, J03.9, J04.0, J06.8, J06.9, J11.1, J11.8, R05 and R07.0.
  2. German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), 2003–2006.