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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients within United Kingdom data sources

From: Determinants of saxagliptin use among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral anti-diabetic drugs

  Clinical Practice Research Datalink The Health Improvement Network
Characteristic* Saxagliptin Other OAD Standardized difference Saxagliptin Other OAD Standardized difference
  (n = 1,962) (n = 19,484)   (n = 2,084) (n =19,936)  
Mean (SD) age, years 52.7 (10.6) 52.2 (10.6) 0.01 64.7 (12.9) 64.6 (12.9) 0.01
Male sex 58.2% 58.2% <0.01 57.7% 57.0% 0.01
UK country       
England 60.4% 60.6% <0.01 63.1% 65.7% 0.05
Northern Ireland 7.1% 7.0% <0.01 5.3% 5.0% 0.01
Scotland 11.4% 11.5% <0.01 12.3% 12.8% 0.01
Wales 21.0% 20.9% <0.01 19.2% 16.5% 0.07
Other OAD initiated at index date       
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: Acarbose 0% 0.2% - 0% 0.2% -
Biguanide: Metformin 0% 63.1% - 0% 62.1% -
Meglitinides 0% 0.4% - 0% 0.4% -
  Nateglinide 0% 0.1% - 0% 0.0% -
  Repaglinide 0% 0.3% - 0% 0.3% -
Sulfonylureas 0% 27.9% - 0% 29.1% -
  Glibenclamide (Glyburide in US data sources) 0% 0.2% - 0% 0.2% -
  Gliclazide 0% 24.9% - 0% 26.1% -
  Glimepiride 0% 2.1% - 0% 1.9% -
  Glipizide 0% 0.6% - 0% 0.7% -
  Tolbutamide 0% 0.1% - 0% 0.2% -
Thiazolidinediones 0% 8.3% - 0% 8.2% -
  Pioglitazone 0% 8.1% - 0% 8.0% -
  Rosiglitazone 0% 0.2% - 0% 0.2% -
On glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist 3.1% 1.9% 0.08 2.4% 1.9% 0.03
On insulin 5.4% 7.3% 0.08 7.7% 7.2% 0.02
Hemoglobin A1c measurements       
Mean (SD) 8.7 (1.6) 8.6 (1.8) 0.06 8.8 (1.6) 8.6 (1.8) 0.08
Hemoglobin A1c >8% 57.6% 39.8% 0.36 56.2% 40.8% 0.31
Mean body mass index (SD) 32.4 (6.5) 31.5 (6.7) 0.14 - - -
Missing values 42.9% 41.4% 0.03 0.7% 2.0% 0.11
Underweight (15–18.5 kg/m2) 0.2% 0.4% 0.03 0.0% 0.4% 0.08
Normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) 4.4% 6.7% 0.10 7.9% 11.4% 0.12
Overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2) 15.9% 17.8% 0.05 29.0% 31.5% 0.05
Obese (30–60 kg/m2) 36.7% 33.9% 0.06 62.3% 54.7% 0.15
Smoking 36.5% 36.5% <0.01 63.5% 61.0% 0.05
Severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (prior 180 d)       
Cerebrovascular disease 0.5% 0.7% 0.02 0.9% 0.7% 0.02
Coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation 1.3% 1.5% 0.01 1.9% 1.5% 0.03
Diabetic coma 0% 0.1% - 0% 0.1% -
Nephropathy 0.3% 0.2% 0.02 0.6% 0.2% 0.06
Neuropathy 0.8% 0.6% 0.02 0.9% 0.6% 0.03
Peripheral vascular disease 1.1% 0.9% 0.02 1.2% 0.9% 0.03
Retinopathy 5.7% 3.7% 0.09 5.5% 3.5% 0.10
Unspecified additional diabetic complications 0% 0.0% - 0% 0.0% -
Medical comorbidities       
Allergic rhinitis/hay fever 8.8% 10.0% 0.04 9.1% 9.4% 0.01
Asthma 16.0% 15.8% <0.01 16.4% 15.9% 0.01
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/bronchitis 12.1% 10.0% 0.07 13.1% 10.7% 0.07
Dermatologic disorder       
  Eczema 17.0% 15.2% 0.05 16.9% 14.2% 0.08
  Psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis 6.4% 5.1% 0.06 5.8% 5.3% 0.02
Gastrointestinal disease       
  Cirrhosis 0.3% 0.4% 0.01 0.2% 0.4% 0.03
  Gallbladder disease 6.2% 5.6% 0.02 6.3% 5.9% 0.02
  Hemochromatosis 0.1% 0.1% 0.02 0% 0.2% 0.04
Hyperlipidemia 16.0% 12.0% 0.12 15.9% 12.2% 0.11
Hypertension 56.7% 50.9% 0.12 61.0% 56.1% 0.10
Infectious disease       
  Hepatitis B virus infection 0.3% 0.2% 0.02 0.2% 0.2% 0.01
  Hepatitis C virus infection 0% 0.1% - 0% 0.1% -
Malignancy       
  Hematologic 0.8% 1.0% 0.03 0.9% 1.0% <0.01
  Solid organ 23.5% 22.9% 0.02 22.9% 23.9% 0.02
Obesity 17.8% 14.6% 0.09 17.0% 13.4% 0.10
Rheumatoid arthritis 2.7% 2.4% 0.02 1.3% 1.7% 0.03
Medications       
Acetaminophen/paracetamol 31.7% 28.7% 0.06 32.0% 30.1% 0.04
Anti-asthmatic agents 18.6% 17.7% 0.02 18.8% 18.1% 0.02
Antibacterials 35.5% 33.9% 0.03 32.1% 30.7% 0.03
Anticonvulsants 8.8% 7.8% 0.04 6.2% 5.1% 0.05
Antifungals 3.0% 2.6% 0.02 2.9% 3.4% 0.03
Antihistamines 7.2% 7.1% <0.01 7.5% 6.9% 0.02
Anti-hyperlipidemic agents 80.6% 58.5% 0.49 81.1% 61.9% 0.43
Antihypertensive agents       
  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 46.5% 36.1% 0.21 46.1% 38.4% 0.16
  Angiotensin receptor blockers 19.2% 13.2% 0.16 22.5% 15.0% 0.19
  Beta blockers 24.7% 20.7% 0.09 28.0% 23.2% 0.11
  Calcium channel blockers 28.2% 23.8% 0.10 29.9% 26.9% 0.07
  Loop diuretics 12.4% 11.0% 0.04 17.3% 11.4% 0.17
  Other antihypertensive agents 9.2% 6.8% 0.09 10.0% 6.8% 0.11
  Thiazide diuretics 19.9% 16.1% 0.10 25.1% 20.8% 0.10
Antivirals 0.7% 0.8% 0.02 0.8% 0.9% 0.02
Non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory 13.4% 13.0% 0.01 12.5% 13.0% 0.02
Other antiplatelet/anticoagulant agents       
  Aspirin 38.3% 29.7% 0.18 42.1% 32.2% 0.21
  Clopidogrel 4.9% 3.7% 0.06 5.0% 3.7% 0.06
  Low-molecular-weight heparin 0.2% 0.3% 0.03 0.5% 0.3% 0.02
  Warfarin 5.4% 4.9% 0.02 6.9% 5.6% 0.05
Other medications       
  Allopurinol 3.2% 3.5% 0.02 5.1% 3.7% 0.07
  Anti-arrhythmics 3.4% 2.6% 0.05 3.1% 3.0% <0.01
  Immune modulators/immunosuppressants 1.2% 1.2% <0.01 1.2% 1.2% 0.01
  Nitroglycerin 5.6% 5.1% 0.02 6.3% 4.9% 0.06
  Urinary anti-spasmodics 4.3% 3.3% 0.05 4.7% 3.6% 0.06
Psychotropic agents       
  Antidepressants 22.1% 19.6% 0.06 20.6% 19.6% 0.03
  Antipsychotics 4.3% 4.4% 0.01 4.9% 4.8% 0.01
Prior OAD Therapy 93.7% 35.8% 1.53 92.1% 36.8% 1.41
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: Acarbose 0.3% 0.1% 0.03 0.2% 0.1% 0.03
Biguanide: Metformin 83.4% 73.7% 0.24 77.7% 73.1% 0.11
Meglitinides 1.1% 0.4% 0.09 1.2% 0.3% 0.10
  Nateglinide 0.2% 0.0% 0.04 0.2% 0.1% 0.04
  Repaglinide 0.9% 0.3% 0.08 1.0% 0.2% 0.10
Sulfonylureas 47.9% 12.2% 0.84 46.4% 12.8% 0.79
  Glibenclamide 0.4% 0.5% 0.01 0.5% 0.6% 0.01
  Gliclazide 41.4% 12.6% 0.69 39.3% 13.4% 0.61
  Glimepiride 4.5% 1.5% 0.18 4.1% 1.4% 0.17
  Glipizide 1.1% 0.7% 0.04 1.7% 0.8% 0.09
  Tolbutamide 0.7% 0.1% 0.09 1.1% 0.2% 0.11
Thiazolidinediones 16.6% 5.3% 0.37 17.7% 5.1% 0.40
  Pioglitazone 14.1% 3.5% 0.38 15.4% 3.4% 0.42
  Rosiglitazone 2.7% 2.1% 0.03 2.5% 2.0% 0.03
  1. Abbreviations: OAD = oral anti-diabetic drug; SD = standard deviation.
  2. *Characteristics are presented as percentages unless otherwise indicated.
  3. Matching criteria for which a random sample (without replacement) of up to ten new initiators of non-DPP-4 inhibitor OADs were selected for each saxagliptin initiator.
  4. Defined as use of an oral anti-diabetic drug within the 180 days prior to the initiation of the index drug. Denominator adjusted to exclude those on index drug.