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Table 3 Determinants of saxagliptin use among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients within United Kingdom data sources

From: Determinants of saxagliptin use among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral anti-diabetic drugs

  Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)*
Characteristic Clinical Practice Research Datalink The Health Improvement Network
  Overall Prior OAD use No Prior OAD use Overall Prior OAD use No Prior OAD use
  (n = 21,446) (n = 8,332) (n = 890) (n = 22,020) (n = 8,621) (n = 1,137)
Hemoglobin A1c >8% 1.26 (1.13-1.39) 1.21 (1.08-1.35) 1.66 (1.05-2.63) 1.17 (1.06-1.30) 1.12 (1.01-1.25) 1.39 (0.95-2.03)
Overweight vs. < 25 kg/m2 0.91 (0.78-1.07) 0.87 (0.73-1.03) 1.32 (0.67-2.62) 1.38 (1.15-1.67) 1.44 (1.17-1.76) 0.95 (0.48-1.87)
Obese vs. < 25 kg/m2 1.13 (0.99-1.29) 1.12 (0.97-1.30) 1.61 (0.88-2.94) 1.74 (1.45-2.09) 1.83 (1.50-2.22) 0.86 (0.44-1.68)
Smoking 0.93 (0.81-1.06) 0.94 (0.81-1.08) 0.73 (0.43-1.26) 1.03 (0.93-1.15) 1.03 (0.92-1.16) 0.86 (0.57-1.30)
Severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus       
  Cardiovascular 1.05 (0.90-1.23) 1.03 (0.87-1.22) 1.49 (0.74-3.00) 0.97 (0.84-1.13) 1.01 (0.86-1.18) 0.74 (0.43-1.28)
  Cerebrovascular 0.79 (0.64-0.98) 0.80 (0.64-1.01) 0.52 (0.20-1.38) 0.87 (0.72-1.05) 0.89 (0.72-1.09) 0.65 (0.31-1.40)
  Nephropathy 1.08 (0.78-1.50) 1.05 (0.74-1.50) 1.40 (0.41-4.80) 1.75 (1.33-2.30) 1.77 (1.32-2.39) 1.79 (0.61-5.23)
  Peripheral vascular disease 0.88 (0.73-1.07) 0.90 (0.74-1.10) 0.54 (0.21-1.35) 0.83 (0.69-1.00) 0.83 (0.68-1.01) 1.32 (0.65-2.68)
  Retinopathy 1.11 (0.98-1.25) 1.06 (0.93-1.20) 2.25 (1.27-3.99) 1.20 (1.06-1.35) 1.14 (1.00-1.29) 2.63 (1.64-4.22)
Diagnoses       
Allergic rhinitis/hay fever 0.83 (0.69-1.00) 0.88 (0.73-1.07) 0.36 (0.13-0.97) 0.92 (0.77-1.11) 0.99 (0.82-1.21) 0.52 (0.25-1.07)
Asthma 0.99 (0.83-1.17) 0.96 (0.80-1.15) 1.35 (0.63-2.86) 0.99 (0.84-1.17) 0.96 (0.80-1.15) 1.44 (0.79-2.64)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 1.23 (1.03-1.46) 1.18 (0.98-1.42) 2.64 (1.34-5.18) 1.21 (1.03-1.43) 1.21 (1.01-1.44) 1.48 (0.79-2.77)
Collagen vascular disease/autoimmune disorders 0.96 (0.82-1.13) 0.94 (0.79-1.11) 1.40 (0.64-3.07) 1.01 (0.86-1.17) 1.03 (0.88-1.22) 1.11 (0.59-2.12)
Dermatologic disorders 1.08 (0.96-1.22) 1.12 (0.99-1.27) 0.50 (0.28-0.89) 1.10 (0.98-1.24) 1.14 (1.00-1.29) 0.97 (0.62-1.52)
Hyperlipidemia 1.19 (1.03-1.37) 1.14 (0.98-1.33) 2.08 (1.14-3.81) 1.21 (1.05-1.39) 1.18 (1.02-1.37) 1.04 (0.59-1.83)
Hypertension 0.86 (0.75-0.98) 0.83 (0.73-0.96) 1.14 (0.67-1.93) 0.88 (0.78-1.00) 0.86 (0.75-0.99) 1.39 (0.87-2.22)
Infectious diseases 1.16 (1.01-1.33) 1.14 (0.99-1.32) 1.63 (0.97-2.76) 1.10 (0.96-1.25) 1.08 (0.94-1.24) 1.30 (0.79-2.13)
Malignancy 0.98 (0.87-1.11) 0.95 (0.84-1.08) 1.78 (1.08-2.95) 0.95 (0.85-1.07) 0.96 (0.84-1.09) 0.83 (0.53-1.29)
Obesity 1.07 (0.93-1.23) 0.99 (0.85-1.15) 1.47 (0.83-2.60) 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 0.96 (0.83-1.13) 1.76 (1.03-3.02)
Other diseases 1.08 (0.94-1.25) 1.08 (0.93-1.26) 0.77 (0.40-1.46) 1.12 (0.97-1.28) 1.06 (0.92-1.23) 1.31 (0.78-2.19)
Drugs       
Acetaminophen/paracetamol 0.95 (0.84-1.07) 0.96 (0.84-1.09) 0.80 (0.44-1.46) 0.92 (0.82-1.03) 0.88 (0.78-1.00) 1.18 (0.74-1.87)
Anti-asthmatic agents 0.96 (0.81-1.13) 1.03 (0.86-1.23) 0.50 (0.23-1.07) 0.92 (0.79-1.09) 0.96 (0.81-1.14) 0.78 (0.43-1.44)
Antibacterial agents 1.03 (0.92-1.16) 1.00 (0.89-1.13) 1.36 (0.82-2.26) 0.99 (0.88-1.11) 0.98 (0.87-1.10) 1.08 (0.69-1.69)
Anticonvulsants 1.16 (0.96-1.40) 1.19 (0.98-1.46) 0.87 (0.32-2.37) 1.07 (0.86-1.33) 1.05 (0.83-1.33) 0.95 (0.39-2.35)
Antihistamines 0.93 (0.76-1.14) 0.91 (0.73-1.12) 1.57 (0.61-4.04) 1.01 (0.83-1.23) 0.98 (0.79-1.22) 1.35 (0.65-2.77)
Antihyperlipidemic agents 1.33 (1.16-1.52) 1.21 (1.04-1.39) 2.79 (1.60-4.85) 1.32 (1.15-1.51) 1.19 (1.03-1.38) 2.41 (1.50-3.88)
Antihypertensive agents       
  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 1.11 (0.98-1.26) 1.12 (0.99-1.28) 0.80 (0.44-1.47) 1.00 (0.88-1.12) 0.98 (0.86-1.11) 0.88 (0.55-1.41)
  Angiotensin receptor blockers 1.35 (1.16-1.57) 1.36 (1.16-1.60) 1.34 (0.65-2.75) 1.32 (1.14-1.52) 1.29 (1.11-1.51) 1.46 (0.83-2.58)
  Beta blockers 1.04 (0.90-1.19) 1.03 (0.89-1.18) 1.46 (0.78-2.72) 1.09 (0.96-1.24) 1.05 (0.92-1.21) 1.49 (0.90-2.45)
  Calcium channel blockers 1.00 (0.88-1.13) 1.04 (0.91-1.19) 0.29 (0.15-0.58) 0.94 (0.84-1.06) 0.99 (0.88-1.13) 0.51 (0.31-0.86)
  Loop diuretics 0.95 (0.80-1.12) 0.91 (0.76-1.09) 1.00 (0.46-2.19) 1.40 (1.20-1.63) 1.31 (1.11-1.55) 1.94 (1.07-3.52)
  Other antihypertensive agents 1.12 (0.97-1.29) 0.98 (0.81-1.19) 2.03 (0.82-5.03) 1.18 (1.02-1.36) 0.91 (0.74-1.12) 1.73 (0.76-3.95)
  Thiazide diuretics 1.01 (0.84-1.22) 1.18 (1.02-1.37) 0.39 (0.17-0.94) 0.97 (0.80-1.18) 1.27 (1.10-1.48) 0.54 (0.28-1.02)
Anti-infective agents 0.97 (0.74-1.28) 1.00 (0.75-1.34) 0.59 (0.13-2.64) 0.78 (0.60-1.02) 0.72 (0.54-0.95) 0.80 (0.29-2.26)
Antiplatelet/anticoagulant agents 0.91 (0.81-1.03) 0.90 (0.79-1.02) 1.16 (0.65-2.07) 1.05 (0.93-1.18) 1.01 (0.89-1.14) 1.53 (0.94-2.50)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents 0.98 (0.84-1.14) 0.90 (0.79-1.02) 0.71 (0.30-1.69) 0.98 (0.84-1.15) 1.05 (0.89-1.24) 0.48 (0.24-0.96)
Other medications 1.03 (0.89-1.19) 1.03 (0.89-1.20) 0.63 (0.31-1.29) 1.09 (0.95-1.25) 1.12 (0.97-1.30) 0.79 (0.44-1.41)
Psychotropic agents 0.94 (0.83-1.07) 0.99 (0.87-1.13) 0.51 (0.25-1.05) 0.95 (0.83-1.07) 0.97 (0.85-1.11) 0.58 (0.34-1.00)
  1. Abbreviations: OAD = oral anti-diabetic drug.
  2. *Odds ratios adjusted for all other variables in this table.