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Table 4 Determinants of saxagliptin use among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients within United States data sources

From: Determinants of saxagliptin use among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral anti-diabetic drugs

  Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)*
Characteristic US Medicare HealthCore Integrated Research DatabaseSM
  Overall Prior OAD use No prior OAD use Overall Prior OAD use No prior OAD use
  (n = 545,408) (n = 177,791) (n = 82,840) (n = 85,865) (n = 17,177) (n = 22,803)
Number of hemoglobin A1c measurements       
  1 vs. 0 measured 2.10 (2.04-2.16) 2.09 (2.02-2.16) 2.02 (1.91-2.12) 1.67 (1.56-1.78) 1.40 (1.27-1.54) 1.96 (1.77-2.17)
  2+ vs. 0 measured 2.93 (2.85-3.01) 2.87 (2.77-2.97) 2.95 (2.78-3.12) 2.33 (2.16-2.51) 1.91 (1.72-2.12) 1.96 (1.77-2.17)
Severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus       
  Cardiovascular 0.95 (0.93-0.97) 0.95 (0.93-0.98) 0.95 (0.90-1.00) 0.96 (0.88-1.05) 0.97 (0.86-1.10) 1.00 (0.76-1.32)
  Cerebrovascular 0.90 (0.88-0.93) 0.92 (0.88-0.95) 0.87 (0.82-0.94) 0.92 (0.78-1.09) 0.93 (0.74-1.17) 0.90 (0.77-1.06)
  Metabolic (ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, coma) 0.95 (0.87-1.03) 0.91 (0.82-1.01) 1.06 (0.89-1.27) - - -
  Nephropathy 1.12 (1.09-1.15) 1.08 (1.05-1.12) 1.25 (1.18-1.32) 1.04 (0.93-1.18) 0.87 (0.75-1.02) 1.40 (1.14-1.72)
  Neuropathy 1.11 (1.08-1.14) 1.08 (1.05-1.11) 1.22 (1.15-1.28) 1.01 (0.92-1.11) 1.05 (0.92-1.19) 1.03 (0.87-1.22)
  Peripheral vascular disease 0.97 (0.94-1.00) 0.97 (0.94-1.01) 0.96 (0.91-1.02) 1.06 (0.92-1.21) 0.92 (0.77-1.11) 1.30 (1.03-1.63)
  Retinopathy 1.03 (1.00-1.06) 1.01 (0.97-1.04) 1.09 (1.02-1.16) 1.02 (0.91-1.14) 0.95 (0.82-1.10) 1.11 (0.90-1.37)
  Unspecified additional diabetic complications 0.96 (0.92-0.99) 0.91 (0.82-1.01) 1.12 (1.04-1.22) 1.01 (0.89-1.14) 0.98 (0.83-1.16) 1.17 (0.93-1.47)
Diagnoses       
Allergic rhinitis/hay fever 1.16 (1.12-1.21) 1.19 (1.13-1.25) 1.14 (1.05-1.23) 1.12 (1.00-1.26) 1.29 (1.09-1.52) 0.95 (0.78-1.15)
Asthma 0.91 (0.87-0.94) 0.89 (0.85-0.94) 0.94 (0.87-1.02) 0.83 (0.72-0.95) 0.92 (0.76-1.13) 0.80 (0.63-1.02)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 0.92 (0.89-0.95) 0.92 (0.88-0.95) 0.89 (0.83-0.95) 0.93 (0.79-1.08) 0.88 (0.70-1.09) 0.93 (0.72-1.21)
Collagen vascular disease/ autoimmune disorders 1.01 (0.95-1.08) 1.05 (0.97-1.14) 0.93 (0.82-1.06) 0.90 (0.79-1.03) 0.94 (0.79-1.12) 0.82 (0.66-1.03)
  Rheumatoid arthritis 1.10 (1.03-1.16) 1.08 (1.00-1.17) 1.17 (1.04-1.32) - - -
  Spondyloarthritis 1.04 (1.00-1.09) 1.05 (1.00-1.10) 1.03 (0.95-1.12) - - -
Dermatologic disorders 1.04 (0.99-1.10) 1.02 (0.96-1.09) 1.08 (0.98-1.20) 1.07 (0.93-1.23) 1.10 (0.90-1.34) 1.14 (0.90-1.44)
  Psoriasis 0.97 (0.88-1.08) 0.99 (0.87-1.12) 0.86 (0.70-1.06) - - -
Hyperlipidemia 1.11 (1.08-1.14) 1.11 (1.08-1.15) 1.11 (1.05-1.17) 1.17 (1.10-1.24) 1.17 (1.08-1.27) 1.11 (1.01-1.22)
Hypertension 1.00 (0.97-1.03) 1.01 (0.97-1.04) 0.99 (0.93-1.05) 1.13 (1.07-1.20) 1.17 (1.08-1.27) 1.18 (1.07-1.31)
Infectious diseases 0.86 (0.79-0.94) 0.88 (0.79-0.99) 0.85 (0.71-1.02) 0.89 (0.79-1.01) 1.17 (1.08-1.27) 0.95 (0.78-1.16)
  Cellulitis 0.92 (0.88-0.95) 0.91 (0.87-0.95) 0.92 (0.85-1.00) - - -
Malignancy 0.93 (0.90-0.97) 0.95 (0.91-0.99) 0.89 (0.83-0.96) 1.02 (0.90-1.17) 1.17 (1.08-1.27) 1.03 (0.83-1.27)
Obesity 0.94 (0.91-0.97) 0.96 (0.92-0.99) 0.90 (0.84-0.97) 0.88 (0.81-0.96) 0.95 (0.84-1.07) 0.76 (0.65-0.88)
Other diseases - - - 0.92 (0.77-1.09) 0.94 (0.74-1.20) 0.93 (0.69-1.24)
  Alcohol diseases 0.68 (0.61-0.76) 0.71 (0.62-0.81) 0.90 (0.84-0.97) - - -
Gastrointestinal diseases 1.01 (0.95-1.06) 0.98 (0.91-1.05) 1.07 (0.95-1.20) - - -
Neurological diseases 0.76 (0.63-0.93) 0.86 (0.68-1.08) 0.53 (0.35-0.82) - - -
Drugs       
Acetaminophen/paracetamol 0.97 (0.94-0.99) 0.97 (0.94-1.00) 0.96 (0.91-1.01) 0.97 (0.91-1.04) 1.02 (0.93-1.12) 0.87 (0.78-0.98)
Anti-asthmatic agents 1.08 (1.05-1.12) 1.09 (1.05-1.14) 1.08 (1.01-1.16) 1.02 (0.93-1.13) 1.02 (0.88-1.17) 1.06 (0.89-1.25)
Antibacterial agents 1.08 (1.06-1.10) 1.08 (1.05-1.11) 1.08 (1.03-1.13) 1.07 (1.01-1.13) 1.12 (1.04-1.21) 0.95 (0.87-1.04)
Anticonvulsants 0.89 (0.85-0.93) 0.91 (0.87-0.96) 0.81 (0.74-0.90) 0.96 (0.87-1.06) 1.01 (0.88-1.16) 0.89 (0.75-1.07)
Antihistamines 1.10 (1.07-1.14) 1.10 (1.06-1.15) 1.09 (1.01-1.17) 1.05 (0.94-1.16) 1.05 (0.91-1.22) 1.11 (0.93-1.32)
Antihyperlipidemic agents 1.22 (1.19-1.24) 1.15 (1.12-1.19) 1.35 (1.29-1.41) 1.13 (1.07-1.19) 1.11 (1.03-1.20) 1.16 (1.06-1.28)
Antihypertensive agents       
  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 0.98 (0.96-1.01) 0.96 (0.94-0.99) 1.00 (0.96-1.05) 0.97 (0.91-1.02) 0.92 (0.85-1.00) 1.01 (0.90-1.12)
  Angiotensin receptor blockers 1.39 (1.36-1.43) 1.32 (1.28-1.36) 1.59 (1.51-1.68) 1.22 (1.13-1.31) 1.07 (0.97-1.19) 1.44 (1.26-1.65)
  Beta blockers 1.04 (1.02-1.06) 1.05 (1.02-1.08) 1.02 (0.98-1.07) 0.99 (0.93-1.06) 1.10 (1.00-1.20) 0.86 (0.76-0.97)
  Calcium channel blockers 1.02 (0.99-1.04) 1.01 (0.98-1.04) 1.02 (0.97-1.07) 0.97 (0.90-1.04) 1.04 (0.94-1.14) 0.86 (0.76-0.99)
  Loop diuretics 1.10 (1.07-1.13) 1.09 (1.05-1.12) 1.13 (1.07-1.20) 0.94 (0.83-1.06) 0.92 (0.79-1.08) 0.99 (0.80-1.22)
  Other antihypertensive agents 1.11 (1.07-1.14) 1.11 (1.07-1.15) 1.09 (1.02-1.17) 1.06 (0.94-1.20) 1.05 (0.96-1.16) 0.99 (0.79-1.24)
  Thiazidediuretics 1.14 (1.11-1.17) 1.14 (1.11-1.18) 1.14 (1.08-1.21) 0.99 (0.93-1.07) 1.05 (0.96-1.16) 0.83 (0.73-0.95)
Anti-infective agents - - - 1.04 (0.95-1.14) 1.00 (0.88-1.14) 1.01 (0.86-1.18)
  Antifungals 1.10 (1.06-1.14) 1.06 (1.02-1.10) 1.21 (1.13-1.30) - - -
  Antivirals 1.09 (1.02-1.16) 1.10 (1.02-1.19) 1.07 (0.93-1.23) - - -
Antiplatelet/anticoagulant agents 0.94 (0.86-1.02) 0.97 (0.87-1.07) 0.91 (0.75-1.10) 0.98 (0.88-1.10) 0.98 (0.84-1.13) 1.07 (0.87-1.32)
  Clopidogrel 1.13 (1.10-1.17) 1.12 (1.08-1.16) 1.18 (1.11-1.26) - - -
  Warfarin 0.96 (0.92-0.99) 0.99 (0.94-1.04) 0.85 (0.78-0.93) - - -
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents 1.06 (1.03-1.09) 1.05 (1.02-1.09) 1.09 (1.03-1.15) 1.02 (0.95-1.10) 1.05 (0.94-1.16) 0.99 (0.87-1.12)
Other medications 1.06 (1.01-1.12) 1.08 (1.01-1.15) 1.08 (0.96-1.22) 0.88 (0.81-0.96) 0.83 (0.75-0.93) 0.99 (0.85-1.14)
  Allopurinol 1.05 (1.01-1.10) 1.06 (1.00-1.11) 1.07 (0.97-1.18) - - -
  Anti-arrhythmics 0.99 (0.96-1.02) 0.99 (0.95-1.02) 1.00 (0.94-1.08) - - -
Immune modulators/ suppressants 1.05 (1.00-1.10) 1.01 (0.95-1.07) 1.16 (1.04-1.28) - - -
  Nitroglycerin 0.98 (0.94-1.03) 0.97 (0.92-1.03) 1.01 (0.92-1.13) - - -
  Urinary anti-spasmodics 1.03 (0.98-1.07) 1.03 (0.98-1.09) 1.05 (0.96-1.16) - - -
Psychotropic agents 0.93 (0.91-0.95) 0.92 (0.89-0.94) 0.92 (0.87-0.96) 0.94 (0.88-1.00) 0.95 (0.87-1.04) 0.87 (0.77-0.97)
  1. Abbreviations: OAD = oral anti-diabetic drug.
  2. *Odds ratios adjusted for all other variables in this table.
  3. For HIRDSM, due to low prevalence, metabolic complications are included in the analyses of unspecified additional diabetic complications.
  4. Medications and diseases were evaluated separately within US Medicare because of the large sample size within this data source.