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Table 3 Regular use of analgesics in the absence or presence of contraindications

From: Analgesic use in a Norwegian general population: change over time and high-risk use - The Tromsø Study

  Unadjusted Age- and sex-adjusted  
Contraindicationa Absent Present Absent Present p value Potential clinical consequence
  % (n) % (n) % %   
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs       
 Chronic kidney disease (6834/10.1) 11.2 (686) 8.6 (59) 11.6 12.0 .802 Acute renal failure, disease progression
 GI ulcers       
  Ulcers (11,516/7.4) 12.8 (1365) 12.0 (102) 11.8 12.6 .509 GI ulceration and complications
  Ulcers or use of GI-protective drugs (11,516/10.7) 12.7 (1301) 13.4 (166) 11.6 14.1 .014 GI ulceration and complications
 CVD       
  High primary CVD risk (9000/13.0) 14.4 (1125) 11.1 (129) 12.1 13.5 .220 Increased risk of CVD
  Stroke, MI, angina pectoris (12,540/9.6) 13.3 (1506) 6.7 (80) 12.1 8.8 .003 Increased risk of CVD
  Hypertension (12,725/49.1) 14.2 (922) 11.3 (705) 11.5 12.5 .122 Increased blood pressure
Paracetamol       
 CVD       
  High primary CVD risk (9000/13.0) 14.5 (1139) 9.7 (113) 11.6 12.6 .401 Possible increased risk of CVD
  Stroke, MI, angina pectoris (12,540/9.6) 13.8 (1565) 9.9 (119) 12.3 12.8 .712 Possible increased risk of CVD
  1. The Tromsø Study: Tromsø 6 (N = 12,981)
  2. GI gastrointestinal, CVD cardiovascular disease, MI myocardial infarction
  3. aNumbers in parentheses are total n in variable and prevalence (%) in the study population