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Table 1 Distribution of maternal blood cadmium concentrations (ng/g) (n = 319)

From: Maternal cadmium, iron and zinc levels, DNA methylation and birth weight

Characteristic Number Mean SD p-value
Child Gender     0.73
Male 164 4.43 (6.66)  
Female 155 4.65 (5.53)  
Gestation Time     0.12
Preterm (<37 weeks) 39 3.07 (4.70)  
Normal(≥37 weeks) 280 4.74 (6.28)  
Birth Weight     0.61
Low Birth Weight (<2500) 31 4.67 (5.93)  
Normal Birth Weight(2500- < 4600) 281 4.58 (6.22)  
High Birth Weight (>4600) 5 1.84 (1.40)  
Maternal Age     0.35
Less than 30 187 4.93 (6.24)  
30-39 125 3.96 (6.08)  
40+ 7 4.28 (2.94)  
Maternal Race     0.03
African American 111 4.71 (4.65)  
White 95 3.13 (5.07)  
Hispanic 101 5.44 (7.63)  
Other 12 6.48 (9.51)  
Maternal BMI     0.48
Less than 18.5 9 5.39 (7.46)  
18.5 to less than 25 111 4.20 (5.83)  
25 to less than 30 78 4.88 (5.90)  
30 to less than 35 39 2.95 (3.55)  
35+ 29 3.87 (4.25)  
Maternal Smoking Status     0.01
Smoking Prior to Pregnancy 39 2.56 (3.13)  
Smoking During Pregnancy 46 6.44 (4.79)  
Never Smoke 225 4.42 (6.59)  
Delivery Route     0.02
Vaginal 198 5.16 (6.72)  
Cesarean section 120 3.50 (4.88)