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Table 3 Bivariate logistic regression analysis: prevalence and factors associated with analgesic use among the adult population in Germany. German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) 2008–2011

From: Prevalence, trends, patterns and associations of analgesic use in Germany

  Study Overall analgesic use n = 1490b OTC analgesic use only n = 805 Prescription analgesic use only n = 583 OTC and prescription analgesic use n = 66
  Subjects Prevalence Unadjusted Prevalence Unadjusted Prevalence Unadjusted Prevalence Unadjusted
n (%) (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Total 7091 (100) 21.4 (20.1–22.6) - 12.2 (11.2–13.2) - 7.9 (7.1–8.7) - 0.9 (0.6–1.2) -
Gender          
 Mena 3399 (49.7) 17.6 (16.0–19.3) 1.00 9.4 (8.2–10.8) 1.00 7.2 (6.1–8.4) 1.00 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 1.00
 Women 3692 (50.3) 25.1 (23.4–27.0) 1.58 (1.35–1.85) 14.9 (13.5–16.5) 1.68 (1.36–2.07) 8.5 (7.5–9.7) 1.21 (0.97–1.49) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 2.87 (1.39–5.94)
Age groups, years          
 18–29a 1065 (18.8) 19.5 (16.8–22.5) 1.00 14.8 (12.5–17.6) 1.00 3.2 (2.2–4.7) 1.00 0.7 (0.3–1.8) 1.00
 30–44 1426 (25.1) 23.8 (21.2–26.7) 1.29 (1.01–1.66) 16.4 (14.2–18.9) 1.13 (0.85–1.49) 6.8 (5.3–8.8) 2.19 (1.33–3.61) 0.3 (0.2–0.7) 0.49 (0.14–1.76)
 45–64 2750 (36.5) 21.6 (19.7–23.7) 1.14 (0.93–1.39) 12.0 (10.5–13.7) 0.78 (0.62–0.98) 8.3 (7.0–9.7) 2.68 (1.74–4.13) 0.8 (0.4–1.3) 1.11 (0.38–3.31)
 65+ 1850 (19.6) 19.5 (17.3–22.0) 0.99 (0.79–1.26) 4.5 (3.5–5.8) 0.27 (0.19–0.37) 12.8 (10.9–15.0) 4.38 (2.78–6.89) 1.9 (1.2–3.0) 2.79 (0.92–8.52)
Socio-economic status         
 Lowa 1156 (19.7) 24.2 (21.3–27.4) 1.00 11.4 (9.3–13.9) 1.00 10.8 (8.9–13.2) 1.00 1.3 (0.7–2.6) 1.00
 Medium 4206 (60.1) 20.9 (19.4–22.5) 0.83 (0.67–1.02) 12.0 (10.8–13.3) 1.07 (0.81–1.40) 7.6 (6.7–8.7) 0.68 (0.52–0.89) 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.58 (0.27–1.26)
 High 1685 (20.2) 19.7 (17.3–22.4) 0.77 (0.61–0.98) 13.1 (11.1–15.4) 1.17 (0.87–1.58) 5.5 (4.2–7.1) 0.48 (0.33–0.68) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.52 (0.21–1.32)
Education status (ISCED)         
 Low 1003 (21.1) 20.3 (17.6–23.3) 0.87 (0.71–1.05) 10.6 (8.5–13.2) 0.80 (0.61–1.05) 8.2 (6.7–10.1) 0.97 (0.74–1.28) 1.2 (0.6–2.2) 1.39 (0.63–3.04)
 Mediuma 3773 (55.1) 22.8 (21.2–24.4) 1.00 12.9 (11.6–14.3) 1.00 8.4 (7.4–9.6) 1.00 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 1.00
 High 2271 (23.7) 18.7 (16.6–20.9) 0.78 (0.66–0.92) 11.6 (9.8–13.8) 0.89 (0.70–1.13) 6.0 (4.9–7.4) 0.69 (0.54–0.91) 0.6 (0.4–1.0) 0.69 (0.37–1.32)
Body Mass Index (BMI)         
 Underweight (<18.5) 93 (1.5) 26.5 (16.6–39.5) 1.77 (0.79–2.64) 22.1 (13.0–35.2) 1.79 (0.93–3.44) 4.4 (0.9–18.1) 0.80 (0.16–3.95) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.0)
 Normal (18.5–< 25)a 2599 (38.4) 20.0 (18.3–21.9) 1.00 13.7 (12.3–15.3) 1.00 5.4 (4.4–6.6) 1.00 0.3 (0.2–0.7) 1.00
 Overweight (25–< 30) 2651 (36.4) 20.5 (18.4–22.7) 1.03 (0.86–1.23) 11.2 (9.6–13.1) 0.79 (0.64–0.99) 8.2 (6.9–9.7) 1.57 (1.17–2.09) 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 2.57 (1.08–6.14)
 Obese (≥30) 1698 (23.6) 24.7 (22.1–27.5) 1.31 (1.09–1.57) 10.7 (9.0–12.6) 0.75 (0.61–0.93) 11.6 (9.9–13.7) 2.31 (1.75–3.06) 1.9 (1.2–3.0) 5.97 (2.52–14.2)
Smoking status          
 Never-smokera 3067 (42.0) 19.1 (17.5–20.9) 1.00 10.8 (9.4–12.3) 1.00 7.0 (5.9–8.2) 1.00 0.9 (0.5–1.4) 1.00
 Ex-smoker 2111 (28.1) 20.2 (17.9–22.7) 1.07 (0.88–1.29) 10.1 (8.5–12.0) 1.65 (1.32–2.07) 8.3 (6.8–10.2) 1.21 (0.89–1.63) 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 0.67 (0.23–1.95)
 Occasional-smoker 415 (6.1) 20.7 (16.4–25.8) 1.10 (0.81–1.50) 13.7 (10.1–18.3) 1.31 (0.89–1.92) 6.5 (4.0–10.5) 0.93 (0.53–1.61) 0.5 (0.2–1.6) 0.59 (0.17–2.08)
 Smoker 1460 (23.7) 26.6 (23.9–29.5) 1.53 (1.28–1.83) 16.6 (14.4–19.0) 1.65 (1.32–2.07) 9.0 (7.3–10.9) 1.31 (0.99–1.72) 0.6 (0.2–1.4) 1.38 (0.64–2.96)
Physical exercise hours/week (h/w)        
 None 2210 (33.1) 22.5 (20.5–24.6) 1.00 (0.85–1.18) 12.1 (10.3–14.1) 0.94 (0.74–1.19) 9.0 (7.7–10.5) 1.08 (0.86–1.37) 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.06 (0.55–2.02)
 Up to 2 h/wa 2952 (41.4) 22.5 (20.6–24.4) 1.00 12.8 (11.2–14.5) 1.00 8.4 (7.2–9.7) 1.00 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.00
 2–4 h/w 1078 (15.2) 19.0 (16.4–21.9) 0.81 (0.65–1.00) 13.3 (11.2–15.6) 1.04 (0.82–1.34) 4.7 (3.2–6.9) 0.54 (0.36–0.83) 0.3 (0.1–0.8) 0.35 (0.12–0.99)
 More than 4 h/w 657 (10.3) 17.2 (13.9–21–2) 0.72 (0.54–0.95) 11.0 (8.3–14.5) 0.84 (0.59–1.19) 5.1 (3.5–7.5) 0.59 (0.38–0.92) 0.8 (0.2–2.8) 0.85 (0.21–3.45)
High risk alcohol drinking         
 Noa 4571 (66.6) 21.3 (20.0–22.8) 1.00 11.8 (10.7–13.0) 1.00 8.3 (7.4–9.3) 1.00 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 1.00
 Yes 2252 (33.4) 21.7 (19.5–24.1) 1.02 (0.87–1.19) 13.7 (11.9–15.8) 1.19 (0.98–1.44) 6.7 (5.4–8.3) 0.79 (0.62–1.03) 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 1.23 (0.63–2.42)
  1. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) are obtained from bivariate analysis. Bold text denotes statistical significance (p < 0.05) in comparison with the reference
  2. aReference group. All percentages are weighted according to the adult German population
  3. bAnalgesics of unknown origin (n = 36)