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Table 4 Multivariable logistic regression analysis: prevalence and factors associated with analgesic use, exclusively using OTC analgesics and exclusively using prescribed analgesics among the adult population in Germany German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) 2008–2011

From: Prevalence, trends, patterns and associations of analgesic use in Germany

  Study Analgesic use n = 1490b OTC analgesic use only n = 805 Prescribed analgesic use only n = 583
  Subjects Prevalence Adjusted Prevalence Adjusted Prevalence Adjusted
n (%) (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Total 7091 (100) 21.4 (20.1–22.6) - 12.2 (11.2–13.2) - 7.9 (7.1–8.7) -
Gender        
 Mena 3399 (49.7) 17.6 (16.0–19.3) 1.00 9.4 (8.2–10.8) 1.00 7.2 (6.1–8.4) 1.00
 Women 3692 (50.3) 25.1 (23.4–27.0) 1.63 (1.38–1.92) 14.9 (13.5–16.5) 1.71 (1.37–2.14) 8.5 (7.5–9.7) 1.28 (1.02–1.62)
Age groups, years        
 18–29a 1065 (18.8) 19.5 (16.8–22.5) 1.00 14.8 (12.5–17.6) 1.00 3.2 (2.2–4.7) 1.00
 30–44 1426 (25.1) 23.8 (21.2–26.7) 1.27 (0.98–1.64) 16.4 (14.2–18.9) 1.16 (0.87–1.54) 6.8 (5.3–8.8) 1.98 (1.19–3.28)
 45–64 2750 (36.5) 21.6 (19.7–23.7) 1.05 (0.84–1.33) 12.0 (10.5–13.7) 0.80 (0.61–1.05) 8.3 (7.0–9.7) 2.19 (1.41–3.43)
 65+ 1850 (19.6) 19.5 (17.3–22.0) 0.95 (0.73–1.23) 4.5 (3.5–5.8) 0.31 (0.22–0.44) 12.8 (10.9–15.0) 3.64 (2.28–5.82)
Socio-economic status       
 Lowa 1156 (19.7) 24.2 (21.3–27.4) 1.00 11.4 (9.3–13.9) 1.00 10.8 (8.9–13.2) 1.00
 Medium 4206 (60.1) 20.9 (19.4–22.5) 0.85 (0.68–1.07) 12.0 (10.8–13.3) 1.03 (0.77–1.38) 7.6 (6.7–8.7) 0.72 (0.54–0.95)
 High 1685 (20.2) 19.7 (17.3–22.4) 0.87 (0.66–1.15) 13.1 (11.1–15.4) 1.13 (0.81–1.58) 5.5 (4.2–7.1) 0.62 (0.41–0.92)
Body Mass Index (BMI)       
 Normal (18.5–< 25)a 2599 (38.4) 20.0 (18.3–21.9) 1.00 13.7 (12.3–15.3) 1.00 5.4 (4.4–6.6) 1.00
 Overweight (25–< 30) 2651 (36.4) 20.5 (18.5–22.8) 1.08 (0.90–1.30) 11.2 (9.6–13.1) 0.97 (0.77–1.23) 8.2 (6.9–9.7) 1.27 (0.94–1.71)
 Obese (≥30) 1698 (23.6) 24.8 (22.2–27.6) 1.33 (1.09–1.62) 10.7 (9.0–12.6) 1.02 (0.81–1.29) 11.6 (9.9–13.7) 1.60 (1.18–2.19)
Smoking status        
 Never-smokera 3067 (42.0) 19.1 (17.5–20.9) 1.00 10.8 (9.4–12.3) 1.00 7.0 (5.9–8.2) 1.00
 Ex-smoker 2111 (28.1) 20.2 (17.9–22.7) 1.16 (0.95–1.41) 10.1 (8.5–12.0) 1.09 (0.84–1.41) 8.3 (6.8–10.2) 1.17 (0.85–1.62)
 Occasional smoker 415 (6.1) 20.7 (16.4–25.8) 1.16 (0.85–1.57) 13.7 (10.1–18.3) 1.20 (0.82–1.75) 6.5 (4.0–10.5) 1.16 (0.72–1.89)
 Smoker 1460 (23.7) 26.6 (23.9–29.5) 1.55 (1.28–1.88) 16.6 (14.4–19.0) 1.55 (1.22–1.95) 9.0 (7.3–10.9) 1.53 (1.10–2.13)
Physical exercise hours/week (h/w)      
 Nonea 2210 (33.1) 22.5 (20.5–24.6) 1.00 12.1 (10.3–14.1) 1.00 9.0 (7.7–10.5) 1.00
 Up to 2 h/w 2952 (41.4) 22.5 (20.6–24.5) 1.08 (0.91–1.27) 12.8 (11.2–14.5) 1.08 (0.86–1.36) 8.4 (7.2–9.7) 1.08 (0.85–1.38)
 More than 2 h/w 1735 18.3 (16.2–20.7) 0.91 (0.74–1.13) 12.3 (10.5–14.4) 1.08 (0.81–1.42) 4.9 (3.8–6.3) 0.71 (0.51–0.99)
  1. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) are obtained from multivariable logistic regression models with analgesic use, only OTC analgesic use or only prescribed analgesic use, respectively as dependent variable and all other variables shown in the table as independent variables. Bold text denotes statistical significance (p < 0.05) in comparison with the reference
  2. aReference group. All percentages are weighted according to the adult German population
  3. bAnalgesics of unknown origin (n = 36)