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Table 5 Multivariable logistic regression and interaction analysis: prevalence and factors associated with prescribed analgesic use among the adult population in Germany. German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)b 2008–2011

From: Prevalence, trends, patterns and associations of analgesic use in Germany

  Prescribed analgesic use only n = 583
Prevalence Adjusted
(95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Total 7.9 (7.1–8.7) -
Gender   
 Mena 7.2 (6.1–8.4) 1.00
 Women 8.5 (7.5–9.7) 1.30 (1.04–1.64)
Age groups, years   
 18–29a 3.2 (2.2–4.7) 1.00
 30–44 6.8 (5.3–8.8) 2.04 (1.22–3.40)
 45–64 8.3 (7.0–9.7) 2.21 (1.42–3.47)
 65+ 12.8 (10.9–15.0) 3.67 (2.29–5.87)
Smoking status   
 Never smokera 7.0 (5.9–8.2) 1.00
 Ex-smoker 8.3 (6.8–10.2) 1.17 (0.84–1.62)
 Occasional smoker 6.5 (4.0–10.5) 1.20 (0.73–1.95)
 Smoker 9.0 (7.3–10.9) 1.52 (1.09–2.11)
Physical exercise hours/week (h/w)   
 Nonea 9.0 (7.7–10.5) 1.00
 Up to 2 h/w 8.4 (7.2–9.7) 1.08 (0.85–1.38)
 More than 2 h/w 4.9 (3.8–6.3) 0.72 (0.52–0.99)
Body Mass Index (BMI) by socio-economic status   
 Low SES: Normal 7.6 (5.1–11.1) 0.87 (0.45–1.67)
 Low SES: Overweight 14.0 (10.1–19.1) 1.44 (0.81–2.56)
 Low SES: Obesea 11.0 (7.6–15.8) 1.00
 Medium SES: Normal 5.6 (4.3–7.2) 0.64 (0.44–0.92)
 Medium SES: Overweight 7.7 (6.1–9.6) 0.71 (0.50–1.02)
 Medium SES: Obesea 11.1 (8.8–13.8) 1.00
 High SES: Normal 3.6 (2.2–6.0) 0.28 (0.14–0.56)
 High SES: Overweight 5.2 (3.5–7.7) 0.37 (0.18–0.75)
 High SES: Obesea 13.9 (8.7–21.5) 1.00
Socio-economic status by Body Mass Index (BMI)   
 Normal: Low SES 7.6 (5.1–11.1) 2.07 (1.03–4.16)
 Normal: Medium SES 5.6 (4.3–7.2) 1.52 (0.82–2.83)
 Normal: High SESa 3.6 (2.2–6.0) 1.00
 Overweight: Low SES 14.0 (10.1–19.1) 2.60 (1.42–4.78)
 Overweight: Medium SES 7.7 (6.1–9.6) 1.29 (0.79–2.12)
 Overweight: High SESa 5.2 (3.5–7.7) 1.00
 Obese: Low SES 11.0 (7.6–15.8) 0.67 (0.33–1.34)
 Obese: Medium SES 11.1 (8.8–13.8) 0.67 (0.37–1.21)
 Obese: High SESa 13.9 (8.7–21.5) 1.00
  1. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) are obtained from multivariable logistic regression models with exclusively prescribed analgesic use, as dependent variable and all other variables shown in the table as independent variables. Bold text denotes statistical significance (p < 0.05) in comparison with the reference
  2. aReference group. All percentages are weighted according to the adult German population
  3. bAnalgesics of unknown origin (n = 36)