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Table 1 Demographic and baseline characteristics of 139 study patients according to vitamin D- supplementation status and form (Non-vitamin D, calcitriol, or cholecalciferol)

From: Low-dose oral cholecalciferol is associated with higher numbers of Helios+ and total Tregs than oral calcitriol in renal allograft recipients: an observational study

  Controls Non-vitamin D Calcitriol Cholecalciferol P value
No. of subjects 16 69 38 16  
Gender (% female) 81 35 29 43 0.003
Age (years) 42 (25.5–53.5) 53 (41.2–62.7) 57 (49–71) 55 (45.5–64) 0.004
Years post transplantation   2.1 (1.3–5.6) 3 (1.7–6.2) 1.5 (1.1–2.4) 0.117
Vitamin D weekly dose      
Calcitriol (μg)    1.75 (1.75–3.5)   
Cholecalciferol (IU)     7000 (5950–10,000)  
No. of rejections   5 1 2 0.275
CMV IgG positive recipients %   52.5 58.1 56.3 0.894
ATG induction (% of patients)   13 17 23 0.568
Serum Creatinine mg/dl   1.5 (1.2–1.9) 1.6 (1.3–2.2) 1.2 (1.1–1.7) 0.155
Maintenance immunosuppresion (% of patients)      
Tac/CsA+ MPA/MMF + Steroids   84 72 76 0.272
Tac/CsA+ AZA + Steroids   13 9 12  
Tac/CsA+ everolimus/sirolimus + Steroids   3 19 12  
C0 MPA (mg/l)   1.9 (1.2–4) 2.6 (1.7–4) 2.5 (1.7–5.2) 0.293
C0 Tac (ng/ml)   6 (5.2–7.8) 6.6 (5.7–7.3) 6.3 (4.8–7.3) 0.839
C0 CycA (ng/ml)   116 (93–128) 140 (117–169) 63a  
Time of blood sampling (% of patients)      
Summer 25 45 52.6 31.25  
Autumn 25 29 21.1 56.25 0.252
Winter 25 13 15.8 6.25  
Spring 25 13 10.5 6.25  
NK cells/μl 176 (149–239) 141 (75–191) 106 (43–230) 178 (90–296) 0.084
CD8+ T cells/μl 377 (291–556) 310 (200–544) 417 (282–568) 531 (237–568) 0.439
CD4+ T cells/μl 762 (590–990) 677 (373–1043) 524 (357–877) 595 (352–1070) 0.144
Tregs/μl* 5.5 (4.7–8.4) 3.1 (1.6–5.3) 2.2 (1.3–4.3) 4.7 (3–8.5) <0.001
Helios+ Tregs/μl* 2.5 (1.3–4) 0.7 (0.3–1.4) 0.6 (0.3–1.1) 2.2 (1.1–3.8) < 0.001
Helios Tregs/μl* 3.3 (2.5–4.2) 2.2 (0.9–3.9) 1.4 (0.9–3.1) 2.7 (1.1–4.6) 0.008
IFNg+ Tregs/μl* 0.3 (0.1–0.7) 0.3 (.04–0.3) 0.16 (0.04–0.4) 0.2 (0.1–0.7) 0.026
CTLA-4+ Tregs/μl* 1.5 (1–2.8) 0.4 (0.2–0.9) 0.35 (0–0.9) 1.2 (0.2–3.5) < 0.001
Treg/CD4+ T cells % 0.72 (0.63–0.91) 0.46 (0.3–0.79) 0.42 (0.26–0.89) 0.79 (0.53–1.4) < 0.001
Helios+ /Helios Tregs 0.72 (0.41–1.1) 0.38 (0.27–0.61) 0.34 (0.21–0.65) 0.65 (0.39–1.4) 0.011
Treg/CD8+ T cells % 1.4 (0.94–2.4) 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.7 (0.3–1.1) 1.4 (0.9–1.8) 0.002
  1. Data are presented as median + interquartile range. Asterisks refer to Tregs with the marker combination CD4+ CD25+ CD127 Foxp3+
  2. NK natural killer cells, CMV cytomegalovirus, ATG Anti-thymocyte globulin, Tac tacrolimus, CsA cyclosporine, MPA mycophenolic acid, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, AZA azathioprine, C0 – trough level
  3. a indicates that only one patient received cyclosporine in this group