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Table 1 Demographic and baseline characteristics of 139 study patients according to vitamin D- supplementation status and form (Non-vitamin D, calcitriol, or cholecalciferol)

From: Low-dose oral cholecalciferol is associated with higher numbers of Helios+ and total Tregs than oral calcitriol in renal allograft recipients: an observational study

 

Controls

Non-vitamin D

Calcitriol

Cholecalciferol

P value

No. of subjects

16

69

38

16

 

Gender (% female)

81

35

29

43

0.003

Age (years)

42 (25.5–53.5)

53 (41.2–62.7)

57 (49–71)

55 (45.5–64)

0.004

Years post transplantation

 

2.1 (1.3–5.6)

3 (1.7–6.2)

1.5 (1.1–2.4)

0.117

Vitamin D weekly dose

     

Calcitriol (μg)

  

1.75 (1.75–3.5)

  

Cholecalciferol (IU)

   

7000 (5950–10,000)

 

No. of rejections

 

5

1

2

0.275

CMV IgG positive recipients %

 

52.5

58.1

56.3

0.894

ATG induction (% of patients)

 

13

17

23

0.568

Serum Creatinine mg/dl

 

1.5 (1.2–1.9)

1.6 (1.3–2.2)

1.2 (1.1–1.7)

0.155

Maintenance immunosuppresion (% of patients)

     

Tac/CsA+ MPA/MMF + Steroids

 

84

72

76

0.272

Tac/CsA+ AZA + Steroids

 

13

9

12

 

Tac/CsA+ everolimus/sirolimus + Steroids

 

3

19

12

 

C0 MPA (mg/l)

 

1.9 (1.2–4)

2.6 (1.7–4)

2.5 (1.7–5.2)

0.293

C0 Tac (ng/ml)

 

6 (5.2–7.8)

6.6 (5.7–7.3)

6.3 (4.8–7.3)

0.839

C0 CycA (ng/ml)

 

116 (93–128)

140 (117–169)

63a

 

Time of blood sampling (% of patients)

     

Summer

25

45

52.6

31.25

 

Autumn

25

29

21.1

56.25

0.252

Winter

25

13

15.8

6.25

 

Spring

25

13

10.5

6.25

 

NK cells/μl

176 (149–239)

141 (75–191)

106 (43–230)

178 (90–296)

0.084

CD8+ T cells/μl

377 (291–556)

310 (200–544)

417 (282–568)

531 (237–568)

0.439

CD4+ T cells/μl

762 (590–990)

677 (373–1043)

524 (357–877)

595 (352–1070)

0.144

Tregs/μl*

5.5 (4.7–8.4)

3.1 (1.6–5.3)

2.2 (1.3–4.3)

4.7 (3–8.5)

<0.001

Helios+ Tregs/μl*

2.5 (1.3–4)

0.7 (0.3–1.4)

0.6 (0.3–1.1)

2.2 (1.1–3.8)

< 0.001

Helios Tregs/μl*

3.3 (2.5–4.2)

2.2 (0.9–3.9)

1.4 (0.9–3.1)

2.7 (1.1–4.6)

0.008

IFNg+ Tregs/μl*

0.3 (0.1–0.7)

0.3 (.04–0.3)

0.16 (0.04–0.4)

0.2 (0.1–0.7)

0.026

CTLA-4+ Tregs/μl*

1.5 (1–2.8)

0.4 (0.2–0.9)

0.35 (0–0.9)

1.2 (0.2–3.5)

< 0.001

Treg/CD4+ T cells %

0.72 (0.63–0.91)

0.46 (0.3–0.79)

0.42 (0.26–0.89)

0.79 (0.53–1.4)

< 0.001

Helios+ /Helios Tregs

0.72 (0.41–1.1)

0.38 (0.27–0.61)

0.34 (0.21–0.65)

0.65 (0.39–1.4)

0.011

Treg/CD8+ T cells %

1.4 (0.94–2.4)

0.8 (0.4–1.5)

0.7 (0.3–1.1)

1.4 (0.9–1.8)

0.002

  1. Data are presented as median + interquartile range. Asterisks refer to Tregs with the marker combination CD4+ CD25+ CD127 Foxp3+
  2. NK natural killer cells, CMV cytomegalovirus, ATG Anti-thymocyte globulin, Tac tacrolimus, CsA cyclosporine, MPA mycophenolic acid, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, AZA azathioprine, C0 – trough level
  3. a indicates that only one patient received cyclosporine in this group