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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of acute recreational drug intoxications

From: Presentations due to acute toxicity of psychoactive substances in an urban emergency department in Switzerland: a case series

  Number of cases, N = 210 (%)
Cardiovascular
 Chest pain 32 (15)
 Palpitations 26 (12)
 Dyspnea 18 (9)
 Hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥180 mmHg) 5 (2)
 Hypotension (systolic blood pressure ≤90 mmHg) 3 (1)
 Tachycardia (>100 beats per minute) 58 (28)
 Myocardial infarction 2 (1)
 Arrhythmias 2 (1)
 QTc >450 msec 32 (15)
Psychiatric
 Anxiety, nervousness, or fear 49 (23)
 Psychosis 6 (3)
 Hallucinations 8 (4)
 Agitation or aggression 35 (17)
 Panic attack 8 (4)
 Insomnia 5 (2)
 Suicide ideation 1 (<1)
Neurologic
 Unconscious (GCS <8) at presentation or pre-hospital 43 (20)
 Impaired consciousness (GCS <15) at presentation or pre-hospital 102 (49)
 Vertigo or dizziness 16 (8)
 Headache 6 (3)
 Paresthesias 6 (3)
 Seizure 13 (6)
 Tremor 5 (2)
 Amnesia 7 (3)
 Cerebellar features (e.g. ataxia) 3 (1)
 Miosis 16 (8)
 Mydriasis 6 (3)
 Respiratory depression 7 (3)
Miscellanous
 Hyperventilation 12 (6)
 Nausea or vomiting 38 (18)
 Diarrhoea 1 (<1)
 Sweating 8 (4)
 Malaise 6 (3)
 Abdominal pain 11 (5)
 Hyperthermia >39.0 °C 1 (<1)
 Muscle cramps 1 (<1)
 Pneumothorax 1 (<1)
 Injuries (e.g. fracture, wound) 1 (<1)
 Epistaxis 2 (1)
 Elevated creatine kinase (>250 U/L) 59 (28)
 Weakness, walking impairment 2 (1)