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Table 4 Effect of MDMA administration in oxidative stress related parameters and ATP levels in the three peripheral organs

From: “Ecstasy” toxicity to adolescent rats following an acute low binge dose

Parameter Control MDMA
Heart
 GSHt (nmol/mg protein) 9.66 ± 1.30 9.53 ± 1.70
 GSH/GSSG ratio 17.62 ± 7.38 15.86 ± 5.93
 GSSG (nmol/mg protein) 0.53 ± 0.14 0.59 ± 0.23
 GSH (nmol/mg protein) 8.60 ± 1.43 8.35 ± 1.46
 Protein carbonylation (% of control) 100.00 ± 13.15 98.94 ± 11.50
 ATP (nmol/mg protein) 0.63 ± 0.20 0.60 ± 0.27
Kidneys
 GSHt (nmol/mg protein) 2.25 ± 0.38 1.93 ± 0.60
 GSH/GSSG ratio 37.58 ± 11.26 32.39 ± 11.29
 GSSG (nmol/mg protein) 0.06 ± 0.02 0.06 ± 0.01
 GSH (nmol/mg protein) 2.12 ± 0.34 1.82 ± 0.60
 Protein carbonylation (% of control) 100.00 ± 12.55 137.26 ± 37.28
 ATP (nmol/mg protein) 1.75 ± 0.62 1.43 ± 0.57
Liver
 GSHt (nmol/mg protein) 19.31 ± 1.96 18.51 ± 2.61
 GSH/GSSG ratio 31.46 ± 9.22 28.68 ± 4.46
 GSSG (nmol/mg protein) 0.60 ± 0.13 0.62 ± 0.14
 GSH (nmol/mg protein) 18.10 ± 2.04 17.28 ± 2.38
 Protein carbonylation (% of control) 100.00 ± 27.83 102.61 ± 23.37
 ATP (nmol/mg protein) 1.60 ± 0.84 1.69 ± 0.38
  1. Total glutathione (GSHt), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/GSSG ratio levels, protein carbonylation and ATP levels in heart, kidneys and liver of control and MDMA-treated adolescent rats. Results of GSHt, GSSG, and GSH levels, in nanomol per mg of protein (nmol/mg protein), and the GSH/GSSG ratio are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and were obtained from six to seven animals. Statistical comparisons were made using the t-test for GSHt, GSSG, GSH levels in the heart, kidneys and liver, and the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver; and the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test for the GSH/GSSG ratio levels in the heart and kidneys. Results of protein carbonylation, in percentage of controls (% of control), are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and were obtained from six to seven animals in each group. Statistical comparisons were made using the t-test for the protein carbonylation in the heart and liver, meanwhile the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test showed in the kidneys a tendency for a change in protein carbonylation (p = 0.051 treatment vs. control). Results of ATP levels, in nmol per mg of protein (nmol/mg protein), are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and were obtained from seven animals in each group. Statistical comparisons were made using the t-test for the ATP levels in the heart and kidneys, and the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test for the ATP levels in the liver