Skip to main content

Table 3 Descriptive epidemiology of medication errors

From: Using Positive Deviance to reduce medication errors in a tertiary care hospital

  Phase I - 2011 (n = 1054) % Phase II - 2012 (n = 1105) % Phase III - 2013 (n = 1854) % P**
Location:     p < 0.001
• Operating room 1.2 1.8 1.5  
• Medical surgical unit 73.1 71.7 62.0  
• Pharmacy 0.0 0.1 4.6  
• Step Down Unit 10.9 8.3 20.7  
• Emergency Department 0.0 2.6 0.0  
• Intensive Care Unit 14.7 15.5 11.2  
Time:     p < 0.001
• Morning (7 am to 1 pm) 33.0 38.4 30.9  
• Not identified 13.4 0.2 0.8  
• Night (7 pm to 7 am) 23.5 31.0 47.1  
• Afternoon (1 pm to 7 pm) 30.1 30.4 21.3  
Order entry type:     p < 0.001
• Electronic 38.4 40.4 73.7  
• Manual 61.6 51.4 26.3  
• Not Prescribed 0.0 8.2 0.0  
Error class:     p < 0.001
• A 29.2 14.1 2.2  
• B 25.8 34.8 65.1  
• C 35.7 35.2 27.5  
• D 8.0 13.8 4.6  
• E, F, H, G or I 1.3 2.1 0.5  
Error accountability:     p < 0.001
• Nursing 46.4 48.5 58.7  
• Pharmacy 19.4 20.1 26.9  
• Physician 32.4 22.9 10.8  
• Other 1.7 8.5 3.6  
Phase of medication use where error occurred:     p < 0.001
• Administering 35.5 43.1 55.6  
• Dispensing 19.6 24.3 22.7  
• Monitoring 3.4 0.9 0.2  
• Prescribing 34.5 23.8 11.7  
• Transcribing 6.9 8.0 9.9  
  1. **Fisher’s exact test or Chi-square test