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Table 2 Trials conducted outside China

From: Differential HbA1c response in the placebo arm of DPP-4 inhibitor clinical trials conducted in China compared to other countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID Location Drug Combination therapy Participants in placebo groups, N Average age, years Gender, male, % Duration of diabetes, years Baseline HbA1c, % Change of HbA1c in placebo groups, % Duration, weeks Jadad score
Rosenstock [20] non-China Alogliptin Insulin 130 55 48 12.2 9.30 -0.13 26 5
Nauck [21] non-China Alogliptin Metformin 104 56 48 6.0 8.00 -0.10 26 5
Raz [22] non-China Sitagliptin / 103 55 63 4.7 8.00 0.12 18 4
Aschner [23] non-China Sitagliptin / 244 54 51 4.6 8.00 0.18 24 4
Hanefeld [24] non-China Sitagliptin / 111 56 63 3.3 7.60 0.12 12 4
Goldstein [25] non-China Sitagliptin Metformin 176 54 53 4.6 8.70 0.17 24 4
Charbonnel [26] non-China Sitagliptin Metformin 237 55 60 6.6 7.98 -0.02 24 4
Raz [27] non-China Sitagliptin Metformin 94 56 42 7.3 9.10 0.00 30 5
Rosenstock [28] non-China Sitagliptin Pioglitazone 178 57 58 6.1 8.02 -0.15 24 4
Hermansen [29] non-China Sitagliptin Glimepiride, Metformin 219 56 53 9.3 8.34 0.28 24 5
Vilsbøll [30] non-China Sitagliptin Insulin 319 57 53 12.0 8.60 0.00 24 5
Scott [31] non-China Sitagliptin / 125 55 62 4.8 7.90 0.23 12 5
Scott [32] non-China Sitagliptin Metformin 92 55 59 5.4 7.70 -0.22 18 4
Ristic [33] non-China Vildagliptin / 58 55 57 2.3 7.76 -0.13 12 3
Dejager [34] non-China Vildagliptin / 94 52 48 1.6 8.40 -0.30 24 4
Pi-Sunyer [35] non-China Vildagliptin / 92 52 54 2.5 8.50 0.00 24 4
Bosi [36] non-China Vildagliptin Metformin 130 55 53 6.2 8.30 0.20 24 3
Garber [37] non-China Vildagliptin Pioglitazone 138 55 51 4.8 8.70 -0.30 24 4
Garber [38] non-China Vildagliptin Glimepiride 144 58 58 7.8 8.50 0.07 24 5
Fonseca [39] non-China Vildagliptin Insulin 152 59 55 14.9 8.40 -0.20 24 4
Defronzo [40] non-China Saxagliptin Metformin 179 55 54 6.7 8.10 0.13 24 4
Del Prato [41] non-China Linagliptin / 167 54 47 / 8.00 0.25 24 4
Taskinen [42] non-China Linagliptin Metformin 177 57 57 / 8.02 0.15 24 4
Moses [43] non-China Sitagliptin Sulfonylurea, Metformin 212 55.4 46 8 8.4 -0.16 24 5
Laakso [44] non-China Linagliptin Glimepiride 120 66.6 63.4 / 8.1 -0.11 12 3
White [45] non-China Saxagliptin Metformin 84 56.6 52.3 6.2 7.97 -0.22 12 5
Moses [46] non-China Saxagliptin Sulfonylurea, Metformin 127 56.8 57.8 / 8.2 -0.08 24 4
Bajaj [47] non-China Linagliptin Metformin, Pioglitazone 89 55.2 55.1 / 8.47 -0.27 24 4
Fonseca [48] non-China Sitagliptin Metformin, Pioglitazone 153 56.4 62.8 10.2 8.6 -0.4 26 5
Kothny [49] non-China Vildagliptin Insulin 221 59.1 52 13.2 8.8 -0.1 24 4
Dobs [50] non-China Sitagliptin Metformin, Osiglitazone 88 54.8 60 9.4 8.7 -0.3 18 5
Lewin [51] non-China Linagliptin Sulfonylurea 82 56.2 61.9 / 8.6 -0.07 18 4
Barnett [52] non-China Linagliptin / 73 56.7 43.4 / 8.1 0.21 18 5
Forst [53] non-China Linagliptin Metformin 70 60.1 62 6.2 8.4 0.24 12 4
Nowicki [54] non-China Saxagliptin / 83 66.2 48.2 18.2 8.09 -0.44 12 5
Gomis [55] non-China Linagliptin Pioglitazone 128 57.1 65.4 / 8.58 -0.56 24 4
Hollander [56] non-China Saxagliptin Thiazolidinedione 180 54.1 46.2 5.1 8.2 -0.3 24 4
Pratley [57] non-China Alogliptin Glyburide 99 57.1 51.5 7.7 8 0.01 26 4
Pratley [58] non-China Vildagliptin / 26 52.8 50 3.5 8.1 0 12 5
Nonaka [59] Japan Sitagliptin / 76 55 66 4.1 7.70 0.41 12 5
Kikuchi [60] Japan Vildagliptin / 20 62 55 7.2 7.30 0.28 12 4
Iwamoto [61] Japan Sitagliptin / 73 60 69 6.4 7.74 0.28 12 4
Kikuchi [62] Japan Vildagliptin Glimepiride 100 60 69 9.8 8.00 -0.06 12 4
Kaku [63] Japan Alogliptin Pioglitazone 115 60 66 6.7 7.92 -0.19 12 4
Kashiwagi [64] Japan Sitagliptin Pioglitazone 68 59 72 7.6 8.00 0.40 12 5
Seino [65] Japan Alogliptin Voglibose 75 62 64 7.5 8.12 0.04 12 5
Kawamori [66] Japan Linagliptin / 80 60 71 5.0 7.95 0.63 12 4
Seino [67] Japan Alogliptin Metformin 100 52 72 6.0 8.00 0.21 12 5
Seino [68] Japan Alogliptin Sulfonylurea 103 60 69 9.4 8.62 0.35 12 4
Kadowaki [69] Japan Sitagliptin Metformin 72 57 68 7.3 8.40 0.30 12 5
Kaku [70] Japan Alogliptin Insulin 89 62 53 14.5 8.43 -0.31 12 4
Odawara [71] Japan Vildagliptin Metformin 70 58 69 7.0 8.00 -0.10 12 4
Hirose [72] Japan Vildagliptin Insulin 75 60.1 71.2 12.9 8.1 -0.11 12 5
Tajima [73] Japan Sitagliptin Voglibose 63 58.6 71.5 / 7.9 0.2 12 4
Kadowaki [74] Japan Sitagliptin Insulin 128 60.2 58.4 14 8.9 0.3 16 4
Tajima [75] Japan Sitagliptin Glimepiride 64 61 58.2 7.9 8.3 0.3 12 5