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Table 2 Drugs with side effect profiles similar to antidepressants

From: Side effect profile similarities shared between antidepressants and immune-modulators reveal potential novel targets for treating major depressive disorders

Drug Drug type Drug target Indication Neighboring antidepressant Antidepressant’s mode of action P-value* Top shared rare side effects within cluster**
Glatiramer Acetate Immune-modulator HLA-DRB1 Multiple sclerosis Fluoxetine SSRI 0.001 Tenosynovitis (6); Skin hypertrophy (5); Tongue discolouration (5); Alcohol intolerance (4); Circumoral paresthesia (4); Dental caries (4); Depressive type psychosis (4); Rheumatoid arthritis (4); Salivary gland enlargement (4); Urethritis (4)
Paroxetine SSRI 0.006
Fluvoxamine SSRI 0.001
Selegiline MAO-B inhibitor <0.001
Mirtazapine 5HT & α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist <0.001
Lenalidomide Immune-modulator TNF-α Multiple myeloma; Myelodysplastic syndromes Pramipexole Non-ergoline dopamine agonist 0.019 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (3); Diverticulitis (3); Ear infection (3) Prostate cancer (3)
Ustekinumab Immune-modulator Interleukin 12/23 Plaque psoriasis; Psoriatic arthritis    0.002  
Pimecrolimus Immune-modulator Calcineurin Atopic dermatitis <0.001
Siltuximab Immune-modulator Interleukin 6 Castleman’s disease <0.001
Rapamycin Immune-modulator Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Rejection in organ transplant Selegiline MAO-B inhibitor 0.016  
Montelukast Immune-modulator Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1) Asthma; Seasonal allergies Bupropion Dopamine & norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor 0.011  
Naproxen Anti-inflammatory; Analgesic COX-1/2 Inflammations; Pain Paroxetine SSRI 0.006 Bleeding time prolonged (4); Retinal haemorrhage (4); Fever chills (4); Pyuria (4); Keratoconjunctivitis (3); WBC abnormal NOS (3); Tenosynovitis (3) ; Urethritis (3); Deficiency anaemia (3); Diarrhoea haemorrhagic (3); Electroencephalogram abnormal (3); Enteritis (3); Iron deficiency (3); Iron deficiency anaemia (3)
Ketoprofen     Fluoxetine SSRI 0.003  
Flurbiprofen Paroxetine SSRI <0.001
     Fluoxetine SSRI <0.001  
Diclofenac     Nefazodone 5HT receptor antagonist 0.037  
Rofecoxib   COX-2   Duloxetine SNRI 0.029  
Meloxicam Clomipramine Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor (TCA) 0.031  
Valdecoxib Sertraline SSRI 0.015  
Fludrocortisone Anti-inflammatory Mineralocorticoid receptor/Glucocorticoid receptor Addison’s disease/salt-losing adrenogenital syndrome Lithium Other 0.004 Benign intracranial hypertension (4); Exophthalmos (4); Papilloedema (4); Pseudotumor (4)
Cortisone Glucocorticoid receptor Inflammations; Pain 0.005
Hydrocortisone Glucocorticoid receptor Severe allergic reactions; Inflammations 0.001
Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate Glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) Skin irritations Venlafaxine SNRI 0.017 Miliaria (5); Skin atrophy (5); Skin striae (5)
Clocortolone 0.012
Alclometasone 0.01
Halcinonide NR3C1 and SMO 0.026
  1. *P-value determined by random shuffling the side effect labels 1000 times and then compares the randomly generated cosine correlation coefficient with the original one
  2. **The top shared rare side effects are the ones that are shared by more than half of the drugs sharing side effect similarity connections within the cluster. Numbers in the parentheses are the number of drugs within the cluster having that side effect. For clusters with a hub that has connections with all other drugs, the hub drug has all the top side effects listed