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Fig. 1 | BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology

Fig. 1

From: “Manganese-induced neurotoxicity: a review of its behavioral consequences and neuroprotective strategies”

Fig. 1

Overview of Manganese (Mn) effects on cholinergic signaling. a Mn promotes an increase in reactive oxygen species production through of mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, Mn impairs the synthesis of precursors for acetylcholine neurotransmitter production. b Mn induces up-regulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. c Mn has a controversial effect on acetylcholinesterase since it is able to increase, reduce or not alter the activity of this enzyme across diferent models of Mn exposure

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