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Table 1 An overview of manganese (Mn) content in food and drinks

From: “Manganese-induced neurotoxicity: a review of its behavioral consequences and neuroprotective strategies”

Food Country of origin Mn content (±SD) Reference
Apple Italy and Bucovat
Nigeria
0.95 μg/g
0.53 ppm
[212]
[213]
Beef meat Xangai, China 0.848 ± 1.10 μg/g [214]
Cabbage Egypt 37.80 ± 1.20 μg/g [215]
Cherry Bulgaria
Bucovat
0.65 μg/g
0.80 μg/g
[212]
Chicken meat Xangai, China 0.561 ± 4.18 μg/g [214]
Chinese chive South Korea 1.17 ± 0.04 μg/g [216]
Coffee Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazil
Lebanon
Poland
5.02 ± 0.52 μg/g
4.97 ± 0.10 μg/g
6.19 ± 0.02 μg/g
6.28 ± 1.01 μg/g
[217]
Duck meat Xangai, China 0.54 ± 0.23 μg/g [214]
Freshwater fish Xangai, China 0.47 to 0.96 μg/g [214]
Garlic Kosovo 0.012 to 1.14 μg/g [218]
Grape Egypt
Nigeria
0.75 μg/g
0.08 ppm
[212]
[213]
Infant formula    
 Cow-based
 Soy-based
USA 30–50 μg/L
200–300 μg/L
[220]
Lemon Nigeria 0.23 ppm [213]
Lettuce Egypt 20.0 ± 1.0 μg/g [215]
Marine mussels
Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis
England, USA, Sweden, Scotland, Canada, China.Hong Kong, China, Malasya, 10 to 100 μg/g
10 to 150 μg/g
[221]
Melon Periam
Turkey
0.65 μg/g
0.85 μg/g
[212]
Milk    [222]
Fresh or processed
Human milk
Pakistan
0.0215 ± 0.01 or 0.0166 ± 0.01 ppm
3 to 10 μg/L
[220]
Mineral water Egypt 2.35 ± 0.16 ɳg/mL [215]
Onion Kosovo 0.002 to 1.29 μg/g [219]
Orange Nigeria 0.45 ppm [213]
Pears Italy
Bucovat
0.40 μg/g
0.90 μg/g
[212]
Pineapple Nigeria 15.00 ppm [213]
Plums Chile
Romania
0.95 μg/g
1.05 μg/g
[212]
Pork meat Xangai, China 0.602 ± 0.697 μg/g [214]
Potatoes
(white, red, orange-fleshed)
Canary Islands, Spain 2.71 ± 2.22, 2.57 ± 1.69,
1.74 ± 0.14 μg/g
[223]
Radish Kosovo 0.038 to 1.33 μg/g [219]
Rice Australia 24.4 μg/g [224]
River water Egypt 2.16 ± 0.16 ɳg/mL [215]
Seawater fish Xangai, China 0.437 to 0.953 μg/g [214]
Shellfish Xangai, China 0.437 to 18.15 μg/g [214]
Soybean    
 Non-transgenic samples Brazil 16.4 to 24.7 μg/g [224]
 Transgenic samples
 Soy extracts
Japan
Canada
18.2 to 44.3 μg/g
16.5 ± 8.6 μg/g
[225]
[226]
Spinach Egypt
Kosovo
South Korea
24.60 ± 1.10 μg/g
0.006 to 1.25 μg/g
3.69 ± 0.0001 μg/g
[215]
[218]
[216]
Strawberry Belgium
Romania
3.65 μg/g
2.15 μg/g
[212]
Tap water Egypt 1.74 ± 0.10 ɳg/mL [215]
Tomatoes Basque Country 6.8 to 23.0 μg/g [227]
Watermelon Greece
Roamania
0.95 μg/g
0.90 μg/g
[212]
White bread Egypt 3.20 ± 0.36 μg/g [215]
Wild chive South Korea 3.06 ± 0.04 μg/g [216]
Wild parsley South Korea 3.45 ± 0.05 μg/g [216]
Wine Greece 2.2 to 10 mg/L [228]
  1. Content expressed as interval, standard deviation (SD) or parts per million (ppm)
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