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Table 1 Cytotoxicity of tested compounds and doxorubicin towards cancer cell lines and normal cells as determined by the neutral red assay

From: Cytotoxicity of Plumbagin, Rapanone and 12 other naturally occurring Quinones from Kenyan Flora towards human carcinoma cells

Compounds Cell lines, IC50 values in μM and selectivity indexa (in bracket)
A549 SPC212 DLD-1 Caco-2 MCF-7 HepG2 CRL2120
1 52.24 ± 5.51 (>3.01) 145.63 ± 10.63 (>1.08) >157.48 >157.48 >157.48 >157.48 >157.48
2 66.30 ± 6.19 (>2.23) 99.31 ± 8.46 (>1.49) 77.28 ± 8.77 (>1.92) 73.63 ± 3.52 (>2.01) 37.57 ± 2.59 (>3.94) 71.7 ± 4.52 (>2.07) >148.15
3 >121.95 >121.95 >121.95 >121.95 >121.95 >121.95 >121.95
4 1.14 ± 0.02 (59.35) 0.27 ± 0.01 (250.59) 0.98 ± 0.11 (70.47) 0.07 ± 0.01 (966.57) 0.06 ± 0.01 (1127.67) 1.01 ± 0.08 (66.99) 67.66 ± 6.49
5 >238.10 >238.10 >238.10 >238.10 >238.10 >238.10 95.51 ± 5.64
6 >222.22 >222.22 >222.22 >222.22 161.92 ± 11.37 >222.22 >222.22
7 68.62 ± 7.55 ((>2.97) 87.91 ± 5.66 (2.32) >204.08 89.72 ± 8.80 (>2.27) 64.59 ± 13.42 (>3.16) 176.17 ± 28.5 (>1.16) >204.08
8 107.52 ± 17.95 (1.09) 8.05 ± 1.46 (1.09) >168.07 63.93 ± 5.97 (2.27) 38.8 ± 3.33 (3.16) 94.22 ± 2.7 (1.16) 117.27 ± 1.22
9 27.35 ± 1.46 (3.48) 2.27 ± 1.52 (41.96) 46.62 ± 5.38 (2.04) 22.95 ± 0.13 (4.15) 16.94 ± 4.65 (5.62) 32.69 ± 0.61 (2.91) 95.24 ± 6.65
10 43.32 ± 2.72 (>2.87) 8.39 ± 0.48 (>14.81) 51.21 ± 5.54 (>2.43) 27.81 ± 2.03 (>4.47) 30.37 ± 8.64 (>4.09) 48.35 ± 3.73 (>2.57) >124.24
11 50.26 ± 2.60 (0.88) 38.28 ± 3.23 (1.15) 45.37 ± 4.89 (0.97) 38.89 ± 2.35 (1.14) 22.56 ± 1.57 (1.96) 61.28 ± 5.53 (0.72) 44.20 ± 0.2
12 >129.45 >129.45 >129.45 >129.45 >129.45 >129.45 >129.45
13 47.53 ± 3.56 (1.96) 36.21 ± 3.08 (2.57) 25.09 ± 1.50 (3.72) 24.63 ± 2.71 (3.78) 9.25 ± 0.16 (10.08) 18.17 ± 1.46 (5.13) 93.21 ± 1.17
14 21.68 ± 1.50 (3.29) 3.14 ± 0.78 (22.72) 114.17 ± 3.68 (0.62) >123.08 >123.08 114.60 ± 4.29 (0.62) 71.34 ± 5.23
Doxorubicin 1.01 ± 0.19 (0.58) 0.07 ± 0.01 (8.43) 0.37 ± 0.05 (1.59) 0.72 ± 0.13 (0.82) 0.35 ± 0.05 (1.69) 0.18 ± 0.03 (3.28) 0.59 ± 0.01
  1. (a): The selectivity index was determined as the ratio of IC50 value in the CRL2120 normal fibroblasts divided by the IC50 in the cancer cell lines. Chrysophanol (1), emodin (2), 3,6,8-trihydroxy-1-methylanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (3), plumbagin (4), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-ethyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (5), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-propyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (6), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-butyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (7), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-heptyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (8), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-tridecyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione or rapanone (9), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentadecyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (10), 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 5-O-methylembelin (11), 2,5 dimethoxy-6-(14-nonadecenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone (12), 1,2,4,5-tetraacetate-3-methyl-6-(14-nonadecenyl)-cyclohexadi-2,5-diene (13), ardisiaquinone B (14). In bold: significant activity [3, 21, 22, 25]