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Table 2 Factors influencing self-medication with antibiotics based on univariate logistic regression models for individual questions. Reference groups are the outcomes not displayed between brackets after the question

From: Antibiotic use practices of pharmacy staff: a cross-sectional study in Saint Petersburg, the Russian Federation

Question (evaluated outcome) No. (N = 316) p-value (Wald-test) Odds ratio 95% confidence interval
When you feel ill (consult a physician) 86 0.001* 0.405 0.232 – 0.707
Have you taken antibiotics in the past 6 months (no) 175 0.727 0.915 0.555 – 1.508
Antibiotic use:
 (Stop after symptoms decreased) 8 0.727 0.759 0.162 – 3.560
 (As per leaflet) 243 0.005* 2.088 1.250 – 3.488
Source of new information about antibiotics:
 - Training sessions (no) 227 0.014* 0.517 0.305 – 0.877
 - Special literature (no) 140 0.002* 0.441 0.260 – 0.747
 - PILa (no) 158 0.800 1.066 0.649 – 1.750
Preferable form (injections) 285 0.207 0.571 0.24 – 1.362
Use of probiotics (no) 285 0.674 0.844 0.384 – 1.856
Attitude toward antibiotic therapy:
 (Against) 10 0.964 0.955 0.126 – 7.229
 (Extreme cases) 295 0.612 0.714 0.194 – 2.624
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. a PIL Patient information leaflet