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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Psychotropic drug use and mortality in old people with dementia: investigating sex differences

  Total Men Women Alive Deceased
  All     
  n = 1037 n = 268 n = 769 n = 549 n = 488
Age 89.4 ± 6.2 88.0 ± 5.9 89.9 ± 6.3* 87.9 ± 6.4 91.0 ± 5.5*
Sex, female 769 (74)    412 (75) 357 (73)
Deceased ≤ 2 years 488 (47) 131 (49) 357 (46)   
Medical conditions and diagnoses
Alzheimer's disease 536 (52) 135 (50) 401 (52) 309 (56) 227 (47)*
Vascular dementia 398 (38) 121 (45) 277 (36)* 196 (36) 202 (41)
Other dementia 137 (13) 31 (12) 106 (14) 68 (12) 69 (14)
Non-specified dementia 62 (6) 11 (4) 51 (7) 30 (5) 32 (7)
Delirium, last month 494 (48) 126 (47) 368 (48) 221 (40) 273 (56)*
Depressive disorder 525 (51) 129 (48) 396 (51) 276 (50) 249 (51)
Angina pectoris 370 (36) 104 (39) 266 (35) 171 (31) 199 (41)*
Atrial fibrillation 213 (21) 66 (25) 147 (19) 98 (18) 115 (24)*
Congestive heart failure 359 (35) 87 (32) 272 (35) 150 (27) 209 (43)*
Diabetes mellitus 165 (16) 55 (21) 110 (14)* 86 (16) 79 (16)
Hip fracture, ever 187 (18) 32 (12) 155 (20)* 96 (17) 91 (19)
Malignant disease, ever 196 (19) 71 (26) 125 (16)* 100 (18) 96 (20)
Myocardial infarction, ever (12.2% imputed) 198 (19) 61 (23) 137 (18) 86 (16) 112 (23)*
Stroke, ever 257 (25) 78 (29) 179 (23) 124 (23) 133 (27)
Prescribed drugs
Antipsychotics 230 (22) 54 (20) 176 (23) 113 (21) 117 (24)
Antidepressants 388 (37) 94 (35) 294 (38) 203 (37) 185 (38)
Bensodiazepines 404 (39) 87 (32) 317 (41)* 205 (37) 199 (41)
Analgesics 691 (67) 154 (57) 537 (70)* 332 (60) 359 (74)*
Antiepileptics 47 (5) 13 (5) 34 (4) 27 (5) 20 (4)
Cholinesterase inhibitors 163 (16) 52 (19) 111 (14) 100 (18) 63 (13)*
Memantine 38 (4) 11 (4) 27 (4) 22 (4) 16 (3)
Number of prescribed drugs 7.7 ± 3.8 7.2 ± 3.9 7.9 ± 3.8* 7.1 ± 3.6 8.4 ± 4.0*
Scales and measurements
Barthel ADL index (6.5% imputed) 12.0 ± 6.1 13.2 ± 5.9 11.6 ± 6.2* 13.8 ± 5.5 9.9 ± 6.2*
BMI (14.9% imputed) 25.2 ± 4.9 25.4 ± 4.3 25.1 ± 5.1 26.0 ± 4.9 24.3 ± 4.8*
GDS-15 (35.1% imputed) 4.2 ± 3.0 4.1 ± 3.1 4.2 ± 2.9 4.0 ± 2.9 4.4 ± 3.1*
MMSE (14.2% imputed) 13.8 ± 6.7 15.3 ± 6.0 13.2 ± 6.8* 15.5 ± 6.1 11.8 ± 6.8*
  1. Notes: Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation or as number (%). Group differences marked with * are statistically significant (p < 0.05). ADL Activities of Daily Living, BMI Body Mass Index, GDS-15 Geriatric Depression Scale, 15-item version, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination