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Table 2 Prevalence of the QT interval prolonging drugs with their therapeutic classes and TdP risks

From: Frequency, characteristics and risk factors of QT interval prolonging drugs and drug-drug interactions in cancer patients: a multicenter study

Prevalence/ classification scheme Frequency
Patients: n (%)a
Overall prevalence of the QT prolonging drugs 514 (92.6)
Gender-wise prevalence of QT prolonging drugs
 Male 256 (46.1)
 Female 258 (46.5)
Therapeutic class TdP riskb QT drug (ATC code) Patients: n (%)a
Antimicrobials (n = 126) Known risk of TdP (n = 98) Ciprofloxacin (J01MA02) 90 (16.2)
Clarithromycin (J01FA09) 6 (1)
Levofloxacin (J01MA12) 1 (0.2)
Moxifloxacin (J01MA14) 1 (0.2)
Possible risk of TdP (n = 1) Norfloxacin (J01MA06) 1 (0.2)
Conditional risk of TdP (n = 27) Metronidazole (P01AB01) 27 (4.9)
Anticancer (n = 51) Possible risk of TdP (n = 51) Capecitabine (L01 BC06) 46 (8.3)
Tamoxifen (L02BA01) 5 (0.9)
Antidepressant (n = 4) Conditional risk of TdP (n = 4) Amitriptyline (N06AA09) 3 (0.5)
Fluoxetine (N06AB03) 1 (0.2)
Antidiarrheal (n = 1) Conditional risk of TdP (n = 1) Loperamide (A07DA03) 1 (0.2)
Antiemetic (n = 571) Known risk of TdP (n = 278) Ondansetron (A04AA01) 278 (50)
Possible risk of TdP (n = 141) Tropisetron (A04AA03) 139 (25)
Promethazine (R06AD02) 2 (0.4)
Conditional risk of TdP (n = 152) Metoclopramide (A03FA01) 152 (27.4)
Antifungal (n = 11) Known risk of TdP (n = 6) Fluconazole (J02 AC01) 6 (1)
Conditional risk of TdP (n = 5) Amphotericin B (J02AA01) 3 (0.5)
Ketoconazole (J02AB02) 2 (0.4)
Antihistamine (n = 8) Conditional risk of TdP (n = 8) Diphenhydramine (R06AA52) 8 (1.1)
Antinausea (n = 21) Known risk of TdP (n = 21) Domperidone (A03FA03) 21 (3.8)
Antineoplastic (n = 30) Known risk of TdP (n = 30) Oxaliplatin (L01XA03) 30 (5.4)
Antipsychotic (n = 1) Known risk of TdP (n = 1) Haloperidol (N05 AD01) 1 (0.2)
Diuretic (n = 22) Conditional risk of TdP (n = 22) Furosemide (C03CA01) 19 (3.4)
Hydrochlorothiazide (C03AX01) 3 (0.5)
Gonadotropin receptor agonist/antagonist (n = 1) Possible risk of TdP (n = 1) Leuprolide (L02AE02) 1 (0.2)
Kinase inhibitor (n = 1) Possible risk of TdP (n = 1) Nilotinib (L01XE08) 1 (0.2)
Proton pump inhibitor (n = 145) Conditional risk of TdP (n = 145) Esomeprazole (A02BC05) 59 (10.6)
Omeprazole (A02BC01) 86 (15.5)
  1. AZCERT Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics, TdP torsades de pointes
  2. aPercentage calculated in total number of patients i.e., 555
  3. bTdP risk was based on the AZCERT QT drugs lists