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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the β-blocker and Non-β-blocker therapy groups

From: Association between β-blocker use and mortality in critically ill patients: a nested cohort study

Variable β-blocker
N = 89
Non-β-blocker
N = 434
P value PS* Adjusted P Value
Age (years) mean ± SD 65.6 ± 14.78 49.7 ± 21.88 <  0.0001 0.37
Gender, n (%)
 Female 35 (39.3) 97 (22.4) 0.0008 0.09
 Male 54 (60.7) 337 (77.7)
Diabetes, n (%) 61 (68.5) 147 (33.9) <  0.0001 0.31
Admission category, n (%)
 Non-operative 78 (87.6) 357 (82.3) 0.21 0.93
 Post-operative 11 (12.4) 77 (17.7)
APACHE II score, mean ± SD 24.9 ± 8.01 22.4 ± 8.09 0.008 0.48
SOFA score Day 1, mean ± SD 8.7 ± 3.65 8.8 ± 3.47 0.97 0.22
Sepsis, n (%) 18 (20.2) 104 (24.0) 0.44 0.03
Septic Shock, n (%) 23 (25.84) 102 (23.5) 0.64 0.08
Chronic Respiratory disease, n (%) 10 (11.2) 60 (13.8) 0.51 0.05
Chronic Cardiac disease n (%) 24 (27.0) 53 (12.2) 0.0003 0.16
Chronic liver disease n (%) 10 (11.2) 26 (6.0) 0.07 0.05
Chronic immunosuppression, n (%) 9 (10.1) 38 (8.8) 0.68 0.89
Chronic renal disease, n (%) 14 (15.7) 41 (9.5) 0.07 0.60
Creatinine (micromol/L), mean ± SD 194.0 ± 152.89 148.8 ± 143.10 0.01 0.52
Estimated GFR, mean ± SD 77.3 ± 62.8 54.5 ± 52.8 0.001 0.57
Vasopressor, n (%) 55 (61.8) 286 (65.9) 0.45 0.64
Statin use, n (%) 34 (38.2) 34 (7.8) < 0 .0001 0.89
  1. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, GFR glomerular filtration rate, PS propensity score
  2. *variables entered in propensity model are age, gender, diabetes history, admission category, APACHE II score, chronic disease (respiratory disease, renal disease, chronic immunosuppression), median estimated GFR, and statin use