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Table 5 Hemodynamic variables before and during clonidine treatment

From: The use of clonidine in elderly patients with delirium; pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic responses

   Baseline Day 1, 3 h after dose 1 Day 1, 3 h after dose 2 Day 1, 3 h after dose 3 Day 1, 3 h after dose 4 Day 2, before morning dose Last measurement during treatment Delta 1a Delta 2b
Clonidine
SBPc, mmHg Median 141 138 130 133 128 d 135 137 −16 −10
  Range 124–190 121–182 106–184 125–160 98 – 153d 81–170 102 – 238e − 61 - 40 −46 - 98
DBPf, mmHg Median 74 78 67 72 65d 78 75 −5 −9
  Range 62–105 64–93 59–84 62–87 58–77d 49–97 56–109 −24 - 28 − 23 - 40
HRg, bpmh Median 89 85 79 66 67d 84 76 − 6 −12
  Range 71–106 64–92 63–101 62–92 60–894d 72–90 62–146 −41 - 18 − 32 - 61
Placebo
SBP, mmHg Median 130 132 134 118 170i 140 136 7 8
  Range 122–181 94–163 110–152 113–149 119–170 110–149 − 40 - 47 −56 - 19
DBP, mmHg Median 72 76 72 70 85i 77 62 5 1
  Range 54–105 58–103 56–105 56–85 61–103 58–96 −27 - 19 −31 - 22
HR, bpm Median 87 85 84 75 75i 84 80 1 1
  Range 53–123 58–105 64–106 58–88 65–140 64–130 −34 - 30 −36 - 36
  1. Bold characters mark time points with a significant change in value from baseline (for SBP at 3 h after dose 2 and 4 (respectively p = 0.047 and p = 0.043), for DBP 3 h after dose 2 (p = 0.047) and for HR 3 h after dose 3 (p = 0.028)). The within group differences were otherwise not statistically significant
  2. abaseline to day 2, before morning dose
  3. bfrom baseline to last measurement during treatment
  4. cSBP = systolic blood pressure
  5. dMeasurements from 5 of 7 patients that received the 4th loading dose
  6. eOne patient had SBP 238 mmHg at the last measurement during treatment, as a part of a hypertensive pulmonary oedema
  7. fDBP = diastolic blood pressure
  8. gHR = heart rate
  9. hbpm = beats per minute
  10. iMeasurements only from one patient