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Table 4 Effect of antibiotics on organ systems of study participants (N = 486)

From: Causality and preventability assessment of adverse drug events of antibiotics among inpatients having different lengths of hospital stay: a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Lahore, Pakistan

Antibiotics Total ADEs
n (%)
LOS
n (%)
Cardiaca
n (%)
GITb
n (%)
Ototoxicityc
n (%)
Hematologyd
n (%)
Hepatobiliarye
n (%)
Renalf
n (%)
Neurotoxicityg
n (%)
Othersh
n (%)
β - Lactams
 Penicillins 62 (12.8) Short LOS 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Long LOS 62 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 34 (54.8) 0 (0.0) 2 (3.2) 5 (8.1) 2 (3.2) 10 (16.1) 9 (14.5)
 Carbapenem 34 (6.9) Short LOS 9 (26.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (22.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (77.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Long LOS 25 (73.5) 0 (0.0) 14 (56.0) 0 (0.0) 10 (40.0) 1 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Cephalosporins 66 (13.6) Short LOS 15 (22.7) 0 (0.0) 4 (26.7) 0 (0.0) 6 (40.0) 2 (13.3) 1 (6.7) 1 (6.7) 1 (6.7)
Long LOS 51 (77.3) 0 (0.0) 10 (19.6) 0 (0.0) 18 (35.3) 17 (33.3) 5 (9.8) 1 (1.9) 0 (0.0)
Total β – Lactams 162 (33.3) Short LOS 24 (14.8) 0 (0.0) 6 (25.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (25.0) 9 (37.5) 1 (4.2) 1 (4.2) 1 (4.2)
Long LOS 138 (85.2) 0 (0.0) 58 (42.0) 0 (0.0) 30 (21.7) 23 (16.7) 7 (5.1) 11 (7.9) 9 (6.5)
Non- β Lactams
 Aminoglycosides 37 (7.6) Short LOS 5 (13.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (20.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (20.0) 1 (20.0) 2 (40.0)
Long LOS 32 (86.5) 0 (0.0) 5 (15.6) 10 (31.3) 2 (6.3) 0 (0.0) 10 (31.3) 2 (6.3) 3 (9.4)
 Macrolides 61 (12.6) Short LOS 5 (8.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (20.0) 1 (20.0) 1 (20.0) 1 (20.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (20.0)
Long LOS 56 (91.8) 8 (14.3) 17 (30.4) 10 (17.9) 2 (3.4) 8 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.8) 10 (17/9)
 Fluoroquinolones 61(12.6) Short LOS 17 (27.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (35.3) 2 (11.8) 6 (35.3) 1 (5.9) 0 (0.0) 2 (11.8)
Long LOS 44 (72.1) 7 (15.9) 8 (18.2) 3 (6.8) 3 (6.8) 9 (20.5) 5 (11.4) 8 (18.2) 1 (2.3)
 Tetracyclines 36 (7.4) Short LOS 7 (19.4) 0 (0.0) 3 (42.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (28.6) 2 (28.6)
Long LOS 29 (80.6) 0 (0.0) 16 (55.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (13.8) 9 (31.0)
 Lincosamide 26 (5.4) Short LOS 5 (19.2) 0 (0.0) 4 (80.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (20.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Long LOS 21 (80.8) 0 (0.0) 15 (71.4) 0 (0.0) 3 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (14.3)
 Glycopeptide 37 (7.6) Short LOS 18 (48.6) 0 (0.0) 4 (22.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 8 (44.4) 0 (0.0) 6 (33.3)
Long LOS 19 (51.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 8 (42.1) 7 (36.8) 0 (0.0) 2 (10.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (10.5)
 Oxazolidones 29 (5.9) Short LOS 9 (31.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (22.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (44.4) 3 (33.3)
Long LOS 20 (68.9) 0 (0.0) 7 (35.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (5.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 5 (25.0) 7 (35.0)
 Imidazole derivative 37 (7.6) Short LOS 13 (35.1) 0 (0.0) 5 (38.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 8 (61.5)
Long LOS 24 (64.9) 0 (0.0) 11 (40.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 13 (54.2) 0 (0.0)
Total non β – Lactams 324 (66.7) Short LOS 79 (24.4) 0 (0.0) 19 (24.1) 8 (10.1) 4 (5.1) 7 (8.9) 10 (12.7) 7 (8.9) 24 (30.4)
Long LOS 245 (75.6) 15 (6.1) 79 (32.3) 31 (12.7) 18 (7.4) 17 (6.9) 17 (6.9) 33 (13.5) 35 (14.3)
Total (β – Lactams + Non β – Lactams) 486 (38.9) Short LOS 103 (21.2) 0 (0.0) 25 (24.3) 8 (7.8) 10 (9.7) 16 (15.5) 11 (10.7) 8 (7.8) 25 (24.3)
Long LOS 383 (78.8) 15 (3.9) 137 (35.8) 31 (8.1) 48 (12.5) 40 (10.4) 24 (6.3) 44 (11.5) 44 (11.5)
  1. aQTc > 440 millisecond (ms) in males or > 460 ms in females in the absence of preexisting arrhythmias, based on ≥2 electrocardiograms
  2. bAbdominal discomfort, nausea and vomiting associated with antibiotic administration, in the absence of an alternate explanation
  3. cThe ability of speech discrimination was diminished upon administration of antibiotics
  4. dDeveloped in the absence of myelosuppressive drugs and characterized as thrombocytopenia (decrease in platelet count < 150 × 103/μL), anemia (decrease in hemoglobin level < 10 g/dL) and leukopenia (decrease in white blood cells level < 4500 cells/ μL)
  5. eCharacterized as increase in total bilirubin (> 3 mg/dL) or alanine transaminase (> 3 times patient’s baseline) or aspartate transaminase (> 3 times patient’s baseline) when there was no preexisting hepatobiliary disease
  6. fCharacterized as high level of serum creatinine i.e. > 1.5 time baseline when there was no preexisting acute kidney injury (e.g. sepsis) or exposure to nephrotoxic drug or intravenous contrast
  7. gDemonstrated as antibiotic associated toxicity, peripheral neuropathy, seizures (when there was no preexisting neurologic condition) or altered mental condition
  8. hOther ADRs among children may include penicillins-associated hypersensitivity; macrolides-associated rashes and Stevens-Johnson syndrome; flouroquinolones-associated arthralgia and tendon disorders; tetracyclines-associated tooth discoloration and enamel defects; Lincosamide-associated metallic taste; Glycopeptide-associated flushing and maculopapular rash; Oxazolidones-associated red man syndrome, pruritus and oral candidiasis; imidazole-associated taste disturbance. Other ADRs among adults may include penicillins-associated hypersensitivity; aminoglycosides-associated stomatitis; macrolides-associated pancreatitis; cephalosporins-associated Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pruritus and urticaria; Fluoroquinolones-associated hypotension; Tetracyclines-associated rash, dermatitis and angioedema; Glycopeptide-associated red man syndrome and phlebitis; Oxazolidones-associated taste disturbance and polyuria; imidazole-associated taste disturbance and neuropathy