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Table 8 Causality assessment with respect to antibiotics class (N = 202)

From: Causality and preventability assessment of adverse drug events of antibiotics among inpatients having different lengths of hospital stay: a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Lahore, Pakistan

Antibiotics Class ATC code Long length of stay Short length of stay
Naranjo score Total ADRs Naranjo score Total ADRs
Definitea
n (%)
Probableb
n (%)
Possiblec
n (%)
Doubtfuld
n (%)
Definitea
n (%)
Probableb
n (%)
Possiblec
n (%)
Doubtfuld
n (%)
β – Lactams
 Penicillins J01C 1 (3.6) 15 (53.6) 4 (14.3) 8 (28.6) 28 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0
 Carbapenem J01DH 0 (0.0) 5 (41.7) 3 (25.0) 4 (33.3) 12 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2
 Cephalosporins J01D 0 (0.0) 7 (36.8) 9 (47.4) 3 (15.8) 19 3 (30.0) 1 (10.0) 1 (10.0) 5 (50.0) 10
Total β - Lactams 1 (1.7) 27 (45.8) 16 (27.1) 15 (25.4) 59 4 (33.3) 2 (16.7) 1 (8.3) 5 (41.7) 12
Non- β Lactams
 Flouroquinolones J01 M 4 (21.1) 6 (31.6) 7 (36.8) 2 (10.5) 19 0 (0.0) 5 (62.5) 2 (25.0) 1 (12.5) 8
 Aminoglycosides J01G 2 (15.4) 4 (30.8) 5 (38.5) 2 (15.4) 13 0 (0.0) 1 (50.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (50.0) 2
 Macrolides J01FA 2 (7.1) 5 (20.0) 12 (48.0) 6 (24.0) 25 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 1
 Tetracyclines J01AA 0 (0.0) 3 (25.0) 4 (33.3) 5 (41.7) 12 2 (66.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (33.3) 0 (0.0) 3
 Lincosamide J01FF 0 (0.0) 2 (28.6) 2 (28.6) 3 (42.9) 7 1 (25.0) 3 (75.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4
 Glycopeptide J01XA 2 (25.0) 3 (37.5) 1 (12.5) 2 (25.0) 8 0 (0.0) 2 (25.0) 5 (62.5) 1 (12.5) 8
 Oxazolidones J01XX 0 (0.0) 2 (33.3) 4 (66.7) 0 (0.0) 6 0 (0.0) 1 (33.3) 1 (33.3) 1 (33.3) 3
 Imidazole derivatives G01AF 1 (14.3) 3 (42.9) 2 (28.6) 1 (14.3) 7 0 (0.0) 2 (40.0) 3 (60.0) 0 (0.0) 5
Total Non β - Lactams 11 (11.3) 28 (28.9) 37 (38.1) 21 (21.7) 97 3 (8.8) 14 (41.2) 13 (38.2) 4 (11.8) 34
Total (β – Lactams + Non β – Lactams) 12 (7.7) 55 (35.3) 53 (33.9) 36 (23.1) 156 7 (15.2) 16 (34.8) 14 (30.4) 9 (19.6) 46
  1. aDefinite (≥ 9 score) ADRs are (1) followed a chronological sequence after the administration of drug or in which the drug had achieved a toxic concentration in the tissues or physiological fluid, and (3) could show improvement when the drug was withdrawal but reappeared on exposure
  2. bProbable (5–8 score) ADRs are (1) followed a chronological sequence after the administration of drug, (2) were in accordance to a recognized pattern of reactions, (3) were not confirmed by the exposure to the suspected drug but by the withdrawal of that drug, and (4) could not be described by features of the patient’s disease
  3. cPossible (1–4) ADRs are (1) could be described by features of the patient’s disease, (2) followed a chronological sequence after the administration of drug, and (3) were in accordance to a recognized pattern of reactions
  4. dDoubtful (≤0) are factors other than a drug are associated with the reactions