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Table 9 Logistic regression analysis of factors associated with Adverse drug events (N = 1249)

From: Causality and preventability assessment of adverse drug events of antibiotics among inpatients having different lengths of hospital stay: a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Lahore, Pakistan

Characteristics ADEs OR 95% CI p-value
Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
Gender
 Male 293 (23.5) 423 (33.9) 1.0
 Female 193 (15.5) 340 (27.2) 0.047 0.018─0.121 < 0.001
Age
 Children (≤18 years) 184 (14.7) 200 (16.0) 1.0
 Adults (> 18 years) 302 (24.2) 563 (45.1) 0.041 0.013─0.130 < 0.001
Co-morbidities
 Diabetes 210 (16.8) 316 (25.3) 1.0
 Asthma 169 (13.5) 255 (20.4) 0.808 0.598─1.093 0.167
 Tuberculosis 37 (3.0) 100 (8.0) 0.304 0.186─0.497 < 0.001
 Cystic fibrosis 70 (5.6) 92 (7.4) 0.527 0.334─0.829 0.006
Reasons of prescribing antibiotics
 Urinary tract infections 198 (15.9) 264 (21.1) 1.0
 Acute respiratory tract infections 157 (12.6) 205 (16.4) 0.004 0.001─0.019 < 0.001
 Soft tissue infections 131 (10.5) 156 (12.5) 0.049 0.018─0.133 < 0.001
 Skin infections 0 (0.0) 138 (11.0) 0.000 0.000─0.000 0.994
Number of antibiotics prescribed per prescription
 1 101 (8.1) 128 (10.2) 1.0
 2 153 (12.2) 450 (36.0) 0.455 0.319─0.650 < 0.001
 3 232 (18.6) 185 (14.8) 1.529 1.063─2.198 0.022
LOS
 Short (< 5 days) 103 (30.7) 610 (48.8) 1.0
 Long (≥5 days) 383 (8.2) 153 (12.2) 14.825 11.198─19.627 < 0.001
  1. ADEs Adverse drug events, OR Odd Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, LOS Length of stay. The variables with p-value <0.05 are significantly associated with adverse drug events