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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of patients based on the efavirenz plasma concentrations’ recommended cutoff points

From: Variability of efavirenz plasma concentrations among pediatric HIV patients treated with efavirenz based combination antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Participant variable Efavirenz concentration
< 1 μg/mL
n (%)
1 - 4 μg/mL
n (%)
>  4 μg/mL
n (%)
p value
Sex Male 11(12.9%) 52(61.2%) 22(25.9%) 0.064
Females 13(21.7%) 25(41.7%) 22(36.7%)
Age group (years) 5–10 7(11.1%) 41(65.1%) 15(23.8%) 0.037
11–15 17(20.7%) 36(43.9%) 29(35.4%)
Orphan status Not orphaned 11 (13.4%) 53 (64.6%) 18 (22.0%) 0.006
Orphaned 13 (20.6%) 24 (38.1%) 26 (41.3%)
BMI-for-age percentiles <5th percentile 5 (10.9%) 18 (39.1%) 23 (50.0%) 0.011
5-85th percentile 19 (19.4%) 58 (59.2%) 21 (21.4%)
>85th percentile 0 1 (100%) 0
Weight for age (WAZ) Normal weight 15(16.3%) 53(57.6%) 24(26.1%) 0.341
Moderately undernourished 6(18.8%) 12(37.5%) 14(43.8%)
Severely undernourished 3(14.3%) 12(57.1%) 6(28.6%)
Height for age (HAZ) Normal height 17(18.1%) 49(52.1%) 28(29.8%) 0.906
Moderately stunted 5(13.2%) 20(52.6%) 13(34.2%)
Severely stunted 2(15.2%) 8(61.5%) 3(23.1%)
MUAC Normal nutrition 16(17.2%) 54(58.1%) 23(24.7%) 0.690
Moderate malnutrition 6(12.8%) 21(44.7%) 20(42.6%)
Severe malnutrition 2(50.0%) 2(50.0%) 0(0.0%)
CD4 cell count (cells/μL) > 350 cells 17 (13.8%) 68(55.3%) 38(30.9%) 0.108
< 350 cells 7(31.8%) 9(40.9%) 6(27.3%)
Viral load (copies/mL) < 400 copies 7(6.7%) 61(58.1%) 37(35.2%) 0.000
400–1000 copies 1(33.3%) 1(33.3%) 1(33.3%)
> 1000 copies 16(43.2%) 15(40.5%) 6(16.2%)
Concurrent Medication No 15 (14.9%) 51 (50.5%) 35 (34.7%) 0.218
Yes 9 (20.5%) 26 (59.1%) 9 (20.5%)
  1. Key: BMI Body Mass Index, WAZ Weight for age Z-scores, HAZ Height for age Z-scores, MUAC Mid Upper Arm Circumference