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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with efavirenz plasma concentration below 1 μg//mL among children being treated with efavirenz based cART

From: Variability of efavirenz plasma concentrations among pediatric HIV patients treated with efavirenz based combination antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Variable Number of efavirenz samples N Efavirenz < 1 μg//mL
N (%)
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p- value
Sex
 Male 85 11 (12.9) 1   1  
 Female 60 13 (21.7) 1.86 (0.77–4.49) 0.168 1.83 (0.68–4.95) 0.232
Age group (years)
 5–10 63 7 (11.1) 1   1  
 11–15 82 17 (20.7) 2.09 (0.81–5.41) 0.128 2.07 (0.69–6.15) 0.192
Orphan status
 No 82 11 (13.4) 1    
 Yes 63 13 (20.6) 1.67 (0.69–4.05) 0.249   
CD4 (cells/μL)
  > 350 123 17 (13.8) 1   1  
  < 350 22 7 (31.8) 2.91 (1.03–8.17) 0.043 0.79 (0.22–2.84) 0.718
Viral Load (copies/mL)
  < 400 105 7 (6.7) 1   1  
  > 400 40 17(42.5) 10.3 (3.84–27.86) 0.000 11.0 (3.66–33.09) 0.000
BMI-for-Age Percentiles
 5th – 85th 99 19 (19.2) 1    
  < 5th 46 5 (10.9) 0.51 (0.18–1.47) 0.215   
Height for age
 Normal height 94 17 (18.1) 1    
 Moderately stunted 38 5 (13.2) 0.68 (0.23–2.01) 0.493   
 Severely stunted 13 2 (15.4) 0.82 (0.17–4.06) 0.811   
Weight for age
 Normal weight 92 15 (16.3) 1    
 Moderate malnutrition 32 6 (18.8) 1.18 (0.42–3.37) 0.751   
 Severe malnutrition 21 3 (14.3) 0.86 (0.22–3.27) 0.820   
  1. Key: cART combination antiretroviral therapy, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence interval, BMI Body mass index