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Table 3 Hazard ratio for new-onset diabetes, according to subgroup

From: Assessment of effect modification of statins on new-onset diabetes based on various medical backgrounds: a retrospective cohort study

Subgroup No. of patients Statin users Non-users Hazard ratio P value for interaction
    No. of events (%) (95% CI)
All patients 1000 78 (15.6) 48 (9.6) 1.61 (1.10–2.37)  
Age
  < 65 yr 596 46 (14.1) 22 (8.2) 1.52 (0.90–2.58) 0.8219
  ≥ 65 yr 404 32 (18.4) 26 (11.3) 1.67 (0.93–2.99)  
Sex
 Female 581 39 (13.7) 25 (8.4) 1.66 (0.94–2.92) 0.9035
 Male 431 38 (17.1) 22 (10.5) 1.58 (0.94–2.66)  
Medical history
Cerebrovascular disease
 Yes 151 13 (17.3) 9 (11.8) 1.00 (0.37–2.66) 0.2935
 No 849 65 (15.3) 39 (9.2) 1.77 (1.17–2.70)  
Ischemic heart disease
 Yes 217 29 (25.2) 12 (11.8) 2.28 (1.11–4.66) 0.2279
 No 783 49 (12.7) 36 (9.1) 1.34 (0.84–2.14)  
Other heart disease
 Yes 213 25 (22.3) 12 (11.9) 1.59 (0.78–3.24) 0.9372
 No 787 53 (13.7) 36 (9.0) 1.54 (0.97–2.44)  
Liver disease
 Yes 136 4 (5.9) 6 (8.8) 1.45 (0.65–3.27) 0.7781
 No 864 74 (9.7) 42 (9.7) 1.65 (1.10–2.44)  
Hypertension
 Yes 450 44 (18.9) 26 (12.0) 1.57 (0.87–2.81) 0.9993
 No 550 34 (12.7) 22 (7.8) 1.57 (0.87–2.64)  
Medication
ARB use
 Yes 410 39 (18.1) 22 (11.3) 1.31 (0.78–2.21) 0.2802
 No 590 39 (13.7) 26 (8.5) 1.87 (1.16–3.01)  
CCB use
 Yes 222 25 (22.7) 13 (11.6) 1.31 (0.70–2.46) 0.4316
 No 778 53 (13.6) 35 (9.0) 1.72 (1.13–2.63)  
Beta blocker use
 Yes 244 23 (18.6) 12 (10.0) 1.61 (0.84–3.08) 0.9948
 No 756 55 (14.6) 36 (9.5) 1.62 (1.06–2.47)  
Other antihypertensive drug use
 Yes 68 8 (22.9) 5 (15.2) 0.84 (0.33–2.12) 0.1378
 No 932 70 (15.1) 43 (9.2) 1.71 (1.15–2.54)  
Antithrombotic drug use
 Yes 114 11 (19.3) 9 (15.8) 1.15 (0.41–3.20) 0.4685
 No 886 67 (15.1) 39 (8.8) 1.73 (1.14–2.63)  
Proton pump inhibitor use
 Yes 375 36 (19.8) 26 (13.5) 1.40 (0.80–2.43) 0.5513
 No 625 42 (13.2) 22 (7.2) 1.89 (1.09–3.27)  
H2 blocker use
 Yes 260 24 (18.6) 17 (13.0) 1.57 (0.77–3.21) 0.8787
 No 740 54 (14.6) 31 (8.4) 1.68 (1.06–2.66)  
NSAID use
 Yes 171 26 (28.3) 10 (12.7) 2.95 (1.36–6.39) 0.0786
 No 829 52 (12.8) 38 (9.0) 1.31 (0.83–2.06)  
Non-thiazide diuretic use
 Yes 135 14 (23.3) 9 (12.9) 1.38 (0.52–3.70) 0.7361
 No 870 64 (14.5) 39 (9.1) 1.66 (1.10–2.51)  
Antiarrhythmic drug use
 Yes 69 6 (17.1) 7 (20.6) 0.67 (0.19–2.42) 0.1553
 No 931 72 (15.4) 41 (8.8) 1.78 (1.19–2.68)  
  1. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and baseline levels of triglyceride and casual glucose. P values for heterogeneity were obtained by fitting interaction terms. Data of subgroups whose hazard ratios could not be calculated because of small samples are not shown
  2. Abbreviations: ARB, angiotensin type II receptor blocker; CCB, calcium channel blocker; H2 blocker, histamine2-receptor antagonist; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug