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Table 1 Comparison of Patients Characteristics According to Mortality due to ADRs events

From: Development of a mortality score to assess risk of adverse drug reactions among hospitalized patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease

  No. (%) of participants  
Characteristics Survived (n = 132) Died (n = 28) p value
Demographics
 Age    0.888
   ≤ 49 years 34 (21.3) 7 (4.4)  
  50–59 years 32 (20.0) 8 (5.0)  
   ≥ 60 years 66 (41.3) 13 (8.1)  
 Gender    0.643
  Male 77 (48.1) 15 (9.4)  
  Female 55 (34.4) 13 (8.1)  
 Ethnicity
  Malay 44 (27.5) 8 (5.0) 0.626
  Chinese 57 (35.6) 11 (6.9)  
  Indian 27 (18.1) 9 (5.6)  
  Currently or previously smoking 34 (21.3) 7 (4.4) 0.934
  Currently or previously consumed alcohol 19 (11.9) 4 (2.5) 0.988
 Renal Replacement Therapy    0.750
  Haemodialysis 52 (32.5) 9 (5.6)  
  Peritoneal dialysis 10 (6.3) 2 (1.3)  
  Conservative management 70 (43.8) 17 (10.6)  
 Renal Function    0.041
  30–59 mL/min/1.73m2 46 (28.7) 3 (1.9)  
  15–29 mL/min/1.73m2 22 (13.8) 7 (4.4)  
   < 15 mL/min/1.73m2 64 (40.0) 18 (11.3)  
 Physical examinations
  Systolic, mean (SD), mm Hg 132 (100) 28 (100) 0.486
  Diastolic, median (IQR), mm Hg 132 (100) 28 (100) 0.159
 Comorbid conditions
  Diabetes 89 (67.4) 17 (60.7) 0.495
  Dyslipidaemia 65 (40.6) 7 (4.4) 0.019
  Hypertension 6 (3.8) 22 (13.8) 0.547
  UTI 3 (1.9) 4 (2.5) 0.005
 Laboratory data
  Serum Albumin, mean (SD), g/L 132 (100) 28 (100) < 0.001
  Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, median (IQR), U/L 131 (99) 28 (100) 0.009
  Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase, median (IQR), U/L 94 (71) 22 (79) 0.009
  Serum CO2, mean (SD), mmol/L 116 (88) 26 (93) 0.020
  Serum C-Reactive Protein, median (IQR), mg/L 62 (47) 23 (82) < 0.001
  Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase, median (IQR), U/L 94 (71) 23 (82) < 0.001
  Serum Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), mean (SD), mmol/L 62 (50) 6 (21) < 0.001
  VMedications use
  Total medication, median (IQR) 132 (100) 28 (100) < 0.001