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Table 1 Times to defined end points in the HR, RPP and ECG after bupivacaine perfusion

From: Dexmedetomidine enhances tolerance to bupivacaine cardiotoxicity in the isolated rat hearts: alpha 2 adrenoceptors were not involved

Times to event (seconds)ConDexBupiBupi + DexBupi + Dex + Yoh p
Tarrhythmia160.9 ± 23.5277.8 ± 27.1278.1 ± 31.2Con vs. Bupi+Dex<  0.001
     Con vs. Bupi+Dex Yoh+<  0.001
     Dex vs. Yoh + Dex0.100
Tasystole360.3 ± 11.5546.1 ± 23.8543.16 ± 37.2Con vs. Dex<  0.001
     Con vs. Yoh + Dex<  0.001
     Dex vs. Yoh + Dex0.099
HR, 25% reduction131.8 ± 14.0179.8 ± 24.8180.3 ± 14.8Con vs. Dex<  0.001
     Con vs. Yoh + Dex<  0.001
     Dex vs. Yoh + Dex0.096
HR, 50% reduction257.1 ± 26.6326.5 ± 23.7330.6 ± 28.5Con vs. Dex<  0.001
     Con vs. Yoh + Dex<  0.001
     Dex vs. Yoh + Dex0.097
HR, 75% reduction303.1 ± 20.6418.1 ± 57.0424.3 ± 27.2Con vs. Dex<  0.001
     Con vs. Yoh + Dex<  0.001
     Dex vs. Yoh + Dex0.080
RPP, 25% reduction121.9 ± 15.8165.5 ± 14.3160.6 ± 13.4Con vs. Dex<  0.001
     Con vs. Yoh + Dex<  0.001
     Dex vs. Yoh + Dex0.099
RPP, 50% reduction223.6 ± 25.5316.4 ± 23.4321.3 ± 23.7Con vs. Dex< 0.001
     Con vs. Yoh + Dex< 0.001
     Dex vs. Yoh + Dex0.093
RPP, 75% reduction285.4 ± 29.0412.6 ± 25.1409.5 ± 27.3Con vs. Dex< 0.001
     Con vs. Yoh + Dex< 0.001
     Dex vs. Yoh + Dex0.064
  1. Tabel 1. Data were given as mean ± SD. (n = 8 in each group)
  2. *P < 0.05 versus Group Con. HR Heart rate, RPP Rate-pressure product, KHB Krebs-Henseleit buffer, Con Control, Dex Dexmedetomidine, Yoh Yohimbine