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Table 6 Comparison of mean changes in laboratory parameters from baseline during exposure periods among five DPP-4 inhibitors

From: Comparative effect of dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors on laboratory parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus

Laboratory parametersDrugsUnadjusted LS mean (95%CI)p-valuebAdjusted LS mean (95%CI)p-value
3 M12 M3 M12 M
aHbA1c (%)   0.001  0.0668
Sitagliptin−0.46 (−0.52, − 0.4)− 0.55 (− 0.65, − 0.45) − 0.46 (− 0.53, − 0.38)− 0.6 (− 0.71, − 0.49) 
Vildagliptin− 0.61 (− 0.72, − 0.5)−0.69 (− 0.87, − 0.51) −0.6 (− 0.7, − 0.5)−0.64 (− 0.81, − 0.47) 
Teneligliptin− 0.64 (− 0.75, − 0.53)− 0.9 (− 1.05, − 0.74) − 0.54 (− 0.64, − 0.43)− 0.76 (− 0.91, − 0.62) 
Alogliptin− 0.43 (− 0.55, − 0.32)− 0.58 (− 0.77, − 0.39) − 0.57 (− 0.68, − 0.47)−0.74 (− 0.91, − 0.56) 
Linagliptin− 0.49 (− 0.62, − 0.36)−0.59 (− 0.78, − 0.4) −0.58 (− 0.7, − 0.46)−0.69 (− 0.87, − 0.51) 
acreatinine (mg/dL)   0.0259  0.1505
Sitagliptin0.02 (0.01, 0.03)0.06 (0.04, 0.08) 0.04 (0.02, 0.06)0.08 (0.05, 0.11) 
Vildagliptin0.02 (0, 0.05)0.04 (0, 0.08) 0.04 (0.01, 0.06)0.06 (0.02, 0.1) 
Teneligliptin0.04 (0.02, 0.06)0.11 (0.08, 0.14) 0.05 (0.02, 0.07)0.12 (0.08, 0.15) 
Alogliptin0.03 (0, 0.05)0.04 (0, 0.08) 0.04 (0.02, 0.07)0.05 (0.01, 0.1) 
Linagliptin0.04 (0.02, 0.07)0.07 (0.03, 0.12) 0.05 (0.02, 0.08)0.07 (0.03, 0.12) 
aeGFR (mL/min/1.73m2)   0.4528  0.4143
Sitagliptin− 1.92 (− 2.55, − 1.29)−4.13 (− 5.27, − 2.98) − 2.9 (− 3.86, − 1.93)− 4.9 (− 6.25, − 3.54) 
Vildagliptin− 2.79 (− 3.98, − 1.6)− 1.33 (− 3.42, 0.76) − 3.97 (− 5.31, − 2.64)− 2.36 (− 4.54, − 0.18) 
Teneligliptin− 2.73 (− 3.88, − 1.59)− 3.22 (− 4.88, − 1.56) − 4.23 (− 5.57, − 2.89)−4.68 (− 6.48, − 2.87) 
Alogliptin− 1.99 (− 3.23, − 0.76)−1.94 (− 4.03, 0.14) − 2.96 (− 4.35, − 1.57)− 3.01 (− 5.17, − 0.84) 
Linagliptin− 2 (− 3.36, − 0.63)−2.24 (− 4.37, − 0.1) − 3.85 (− 5.35, − 2.35)− 4.13 (− 6.35, − 1.9) 
aHDL (mg/dL)   0.1268  0.0613
Sitagliptin− 0.87 (− 1.42, − 0.31)−1.33 (− 2.45, − 0.21) − 0.8 (− 1.65, 0.05)−1.37 (− 2.65, − 0.09) 
Vildagliptin− 1.15 (− 2.19, − 0.1)−2.9 (− 4.78, − 1.03) −1.67 (− 2.85, − 0.49)−3.29 (− 5.23, − 1.35) 
Teneligliptin0.1 (− 0.95, 1.15)− 0.9 (− 2.44, 0.63) 0.1 (−1.12, 1.31)− 0.93 (− 2.58, 0.71) 
Alogliptin− 0.46 (− 1.59, 0.67)− 0.89 (− 2.86, 1.08) − 0.93 (− 2.2, 0.33)−1.33 (− 3.36, 0.7) 
Linagliptin−0.57 (−1.8, 0.66)0.84 (− 1.18, 2.86) − 0.87 (− 2.2, 0.46)0.36 (− 1.71, 2.43) 
aTC (mg/dL)   0.1469  0.3631
Sitagliptin− 3.4 (− 5.3, −1.51)1.3 (− 2.1, 4.7) − 3.14 (− 6.14, −0.14)1.06 (− 3.05, 5.16) 
Vildagliptin− 5.22 (− 8.79, − 1.65)− 6.57 (− 12.63, − 0.5) − 4.67 (− 8.81, − 0.53)− 6.05 (− 12.51, 0.42) 
Teneligliptin−3.22 (− 6.74, 0.3)− 6.56 (− 11.63, − 1.49) − 1.71 (− 5.89, 2.48)− 5 (− 10.57, 0.57) 
Alogliptin−4.58 (− 8.56, − 0.6)−0.18 (− 6.63, 6.27) −4.32 (− 8.84, 0.19)−0.36 (− 7.17, 6.46) 
Linagliptin−2.91 (− 7.03, 1.21)1.21 (− 4.92, 7.33) − 2.76 (− 7.35, 1.83)1.12 (− 5.38, 7.62) 
aTG (mg/dL)   0.4256  0.536
Sitagliptin−5.96 (− 10.95, −0.97)− 3.1 (− 12.32, 6.13) − 1.49 (− 9.42, 6.43)0.92 (− 10.15, 12) 
Vildagliptin−12.01 (−21.55, − 2.47)−15.02 (− 30.92, 0.89) − 7.39 (− 18.46, 3.68)− 10.3 (− 27.3, 6.69) 
Teneligliptin− 6.32 (− 15.46, 2.82)− 12.27 (− 25.28, 0.74) 0.5 (− 10.55, 11.55)− 5.66 (− 20.13, 8.8) 
Alogliptin−14.92 (− 24.95, − 4.9)−2.56 (− 19.42, 14.29) −10.28 (− 21.97, 1.41)1.49 (− 16.39, 19.36) 
Linagliptin−1.78 (− 12.55, 8.99)1.45 (− 15.24, 18.14) 2.27 (− 9.79, 14.34)5.12 (− 12.56, 22.8) 
aAST (U/L)   0.1086   
Sitagliptin−0.97 (−2.06, 0.13)− 0.27 (− 2.41, 1.86) −2.65 (− 4.25, −1.06)−2.02 (− 4.45, 0.4)0.105
Vildagliptin0.91 (−1.16, 2.98)3.11 (− 0.89, 7.1) 0.05 (−2.2, 2.29)0.57 (− 3.47, 4.62) 
Teneligliptin−1.43 (− 3.44, 0.57)− 0.41 (− 3.48, 2.67) − 2.32 (− 4.58, − 0.07)− 1.44 (− 4.66, 1.77) 
Alogliptin− 2.87 (− 5.04, − 0.69)−2.24 (− 6.11, 1.64) − 4.23 (− 6.6, − 1.86)−2.73 (− 6.64, 1.17) 
Linagliptin−0.49 (−2.84, 1.87)− 1.23 (− 5.19, 2.73) − 2.99 (− 5.48, − 0.5)−3.93 (− 7.94, 0.09) 
aALT (U/L)   0.1576  0.2768
Sitagliptin−2.33 (−3.56, − 1.11)− 1.92 (− 3.99, 0.16) −4.08 (− 5.82, − 2.34)−3.74 (− 6.15, − 1.32) 
Vildagliptin-2.05 (-4.36, 0.26)−0.25 (− 4.1, 3.6) −2.88 (− 5.29, − 0.47)−1.81 (− 5.75, 2.12) 
Teneligliptin− 2.74 (− 4.97, − 0.51)− 3.69 (− 6.77, − 0.6) − 3.73 (− 6.14, − 1.31)− 3.42 (− 7.28, 0.44) 
Alogliptin−5.69 (− 8.1, − 3.28)−5.08 (− 8.94, − 1.23) −6.13 (− 8.66, − 3.6)−4.86 (− 8.76, − 0.97) 
Linagliptin−2.83 (− 5.47, − 0.18)−3.68 (− 7.57, 0.22) −5.15 (− 7.82, − 2.48)−6.19 (− 10.13, − 2.24) 
  1. aindicates change in laboratory parameter during exposure period from baseline
  2. HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL high density lipoprotein, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, LS mean least square mean, CI confidence interval, p value: p value among five DPP-4 inhibitors (multiple-comparison test)
  3. bAdjusted for time, age, sex, medical history in baseline period including ischemic heart disease and hypertension, medication in baseline period including hypoglycemic drugs and lipid-lowering drugs, baseline concentration of HbA1c, and baseline concentration of each parameter