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Table 6 Most common contraindication, major and moderate DDIs identified in the included studies

From: Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions and associated factors among outpatients and inpatients in Ethiopian hospitals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Drug interaction pairs Number of interactions Severity Effect of interaction
Clarithromycin+ simvastatin 6 Contraindication Increased risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis
Chlorpromazine +Thioridazine 4 Contraindication Risk of an irregular heartbeat which may belief threatening
Clarithromycin ciprofloxacin 1 Contraindication Increased risk of QT interval prolongation
Aspirin+clopidogrel 160 Major Bleeding
Aspirin+enalapril 157 Major Renal dysfunction
Spironolactone + enalapril 101 Major Hyperkalemia
Omeprazole+clopidogrel 56 Major Decrease effect of clopidogrel and increased risk for thrombosis
Spironolactone + digoxin 47 Major Increased risk of digoxin toxicity
Heparin + aspirin 38 Major Increased risk of bleeding
Aspirin+furosemide 173 Moderate Fluid retention
Haloperidol+Trihexphenidyl 74 Moderate Decrease the effect of Trihexyphenidyl
Enalapril +Furosemide 59 Moderate Postural hypotension (first dose)
Simvastatin+azithromycin 39 Moderate Increased risk of rhabdomyolysis