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Table 2 PK parameters (non-compartmental analysis) of landiolol and its metabolites during 60 min infusion on top of continuous dobutamine infusion in healthy volunteers of European ancestry (n = 16)

From: Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic behavior of landiolol during dobutamine challenge in healthy adults

Parameter Statistic Landiolol LM1 LM2
Cmax (ng · ml− 1) geo mean (SD) 188 (1.20) 738 (1.16) 30 (1.30)
[95% CI] [170, 208] [681, 799] [26, 35]
tmax (min) median 36 64 100
[range] [12, 60] [60, 72] [90, 180]
AUC0-t (ng · hr. · ml−1) geo mean (SD) 160 (1.18) 1710 (1.34) 82 (1.93)
[95% CI] [147, 175] [1460, 2000] [58, 117]
AUC0-∞ (ng · hr. · ml−1) geo mean (SD) 162 (1.17) 1920 (1.26) 203 (1.58)
[95% CI] [148, 176] [1700, 2180] [143, 289]
t1/2 (min) geo mean (SD) 3.5 (1.15) 98 (1.25) 220 (1.87)
[95% CI] [3.2, 3.7] [87, 110] [130, 350]
λz (min−1) geo mean (SD) 0.20 (1.15) 0.0071 (1.25) 0.0032 (1.87)
[95% CI] [0.19, 0.22] [0.0063, 0.0080] [0.0020, 0.0052]
CL (ml · kg−1 · min−1) geo mean (SD) 62 (1.17) 5.2 (1.26) 49.2 (1.58)
[95% CI] [57, 67] [4.58, 5.9] [34.6, 69.8]
VD (ml · kg−1) geo mean (SD) 309 (1.28) 733 (1.15) 15,300 (1.41)
[95% CI] [271, 352] [679, 791] [11,800, 20,000]
  1. Cmax Maximum blood concentration, tmax Time until maximum blood concentration, AUC0-t Area under the blood concentration-time curve from start of administration to the last measurable concentration estimate, AUC0-∞ Area under the blood concentration-time curve from start of administration to infinity, λz Terminal elimination rate constant, t1/2 Elimination half-life during the terminal phase, CL Total body clearance, VD Volume of distribution, SD Standard deviation, 95% CI 95% confidence interval