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Table 1 Summary of 29 patients with dermal tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) exposure in Taiwan

From: Presentations of tetramethylammonium hydroxide dermal exposure and the valuable potential of diphoterine solution in decontamination: a retrospective observational study

Case No Age/sex Concentration of TMAH (%) Exposed BSA Elapsed time to decontamination Decontamination time Diphoterine Clinical manifestations Laboratory abnormalities Treatment/outcome
1 34/M 25% 5% BSA 5 min > 15 min Used First to second degree chemical burn, dyspnea, drowsiness, bradycardia Leukocytosis, hypokalemia Supportive, intensive care /survived
2 29/M 25% 2% BSA N/A 15 min None Second-degree chemical burn All normal Supportive, intensive care /survived
3 22/M 25% 1% BSA < 1 min N/A Used First-degree chemical burn All normal Supportive/survived
4 27/M 25% < 1%BSA < 1 min N/A Used First-degree chemical burn All normal Supportive/survived
5 46/M 25% < 1% BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn N/A Supportive/survived
6 48/M 25% 1% BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn N/A Supportive/survived
7 23/M 20% diluted 1% BSA < 1 min N/A Used First-degree chemical burn All normal Supportive/survived
8 25/M 2.38% < 1% BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn N/A Supportive/survived
9 25/F 2.38% < 1% BSA N/A N/A Used First-degree chemical burn N/A Supportive/survived
10 36/M 2.38% < 1% BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn N/A Supportive/survived
11 28/M 2.38% < 1% BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn N/A Supportive/survived
12 23/F 2.38% < 1% BSA N/A N/A None None None Supportive/survived
13 35/M 2.38% 1% BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn None Supportive/survived
14 29/M 2.38% < 1% BSA < 5 min 30 min None None None Supportive/survived
15 37/M 2.38% < 1% BSA < 5 min 30 min None None None Supportive/survived
16 33/M 2.38% < 1% BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn None Supportive/survived
17 34/M 2.38% 2% BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn None Supportive/survived
18 36/M 2.36% < 2% BSA N/A N/A None None All normal Supportive/survived
19 43/M 2.38% N/A (Right arm) N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn N/A Supportive/survived
20 23/M 0.50% Nearly entire body 30 min 20 min None None All normal Supportive/survived
21 26/M 0.50% Nearly entire body 30 min 20 min None None Leukocytosis Supportive/survived
22 27/M N/A < 1% BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn N/A Supportive/survived
23 22/M N/A 1% BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn N/A Supportive/survived
24 34/M N/A < 1% BSA N/A 20 min None None All normal Supportive/survived
25 39/M N/A < 1% BSA N/A 15 min None First-degree chemical burn All normal Supportive/survived
26 30/M 3% N/A (Bil. forearm) N/A N/A None None All normal Supportive/survived
27 27/F N/A < 1% BSA 40 min 30 min None First-degree chemical burn None Supportive/survived
28 25/F N/A < 1%BSA N/A N/A None First-degree chemical burn All normal Supportive/survived
29 22/F 1–3% < 1%BSA None None None First-degree chemical burn N/A Supportive/survived