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Table 3 Association between anticholinergic burden measured by each scales and ED visits for anticholinergic adverse effects in older Korean adults (N = 461,034)

From: Comparative associations between anticholinergic burden and emergency department visits for anticholinergic adverse events in older Korean adults: a nested case-control study using national claims data for validation of a novel country-specific scale

Scale and Score Anticholinergic ED visits
(N = 21,954)
Fall or fracture
(N = 8124)
Dizziness
(N = 7026)
Delirium
(N = 719)
Constipation
(N = 7141)
Urinary retention
(N = 1878)
aORa (95% CI) aORa (95% CI) aORa (95% CI) aORa (95% CI) aORa (95% CI) aORa (95% CI)
KABS
 0 (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 1 1.30 (1.26–1.35) 1.24 (1.17–1.31) 1.23 (1.15–1.30) 1.36 (1.12–1.66) 1.38 (1.30–1.47) 1.50 (1.34–1.69)
 2 1.46 (1.38–1.54) 1.37 (1.25–1.49) 1.29 (1.17–1.41) 1.91 (1.46–2.50) 1.68 (1.54–1.84) 1.68 (1.41–2.00)
  ≥ 3 1.62 (1.53–1.72) 1.54 (1.40–1.69) 1.44 (1.30–1.59) 2.96 (2.28–3.83) 1.84 (1.68–2.02) 2.13 (1.79–2.55)
ARS
 0 (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 1 1.14 (1.10–1.19) 1.08 (1.01–1.15) 1.04 (0.97–1.12) 1.14 (0.92–1.41) 1.25 (1.17–1.33) 1.39 (1.23–1.58)
 2 1.24 (1.14–1.36) 1.17 (1.01–1.35) 1.13 (0.97–1.32) 1.92 (1.32–2.77) 1.40 (1.22–1.60) 1.49 (1.14–1.94)
  ≥ 3 1.57 (1.38–1.80) 1.60 (1.29–1.98) 1.12 (0.86–1.45) 2.32 (1.33–4.03) 1.85 (1.52–2.26) 1.91 (1.28–2.83)
ACB
 0 (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 1 1.12 (1.08–1.15) 1.03 (0.98–1.09) 1.18 (1.11–1.25) 1.05 (0.86–1.26) 1.12 (1.06–1.19) 1.16 (1.04–1.30)
 2 1.25 (1.19–1.32) 1.10 (1.01–1.20) 1.28 (1.16–1.40) 1.57 (1.21–2.04) 1.32 (1.21–1.43) 1.36 (1.15–1.62)
  ≥ 3 1.40 (1.32–1.49) 1.21 (1.09–1.34) 1.36 (1.23–1.51) 2.22 (1.69–2.90) 1.61 (1.46–1.77) 1.71 (1.43–2.06)
ADS
 0 (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 1 1.25 (1.21–1.30) 1.15 (1.09–1.22) 1.23 (1.16–1.31) 1.39 (1.15–1.68) 1.35 (1.27–1.43) 1.35 (1.20–1.51)
 2 1.35 (1.28–1.43) 1.26 (1.16–1.38) 1.27 (1.16–1.39) 1.56 (1.19–2.05) 1.54 (1.42–1.68) 1.45 (1.22–1.72)
  ≥ 3 1.61 (1.52–1.72) 1.41 (1.27–1.57) 1.49 (1.34–1.67) 2.55 (1.91–3.40) 1.88 (1.70–2.08) 1.91 (1.57–2.32)
  1. ED emergency department, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, KABS Korean Anticholinergic Burden Scale, ARS Anticholinergic Risk Scale, ACB Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale, ADS Anticholinergic Drug Scale
  2. aCo-morbid conditions, polypharmacy, excessive polypharmacy, exposure to sedative drugs, warfarin, insulin and digoxin, and more than 1 increase compared to previous month’s anticholinergic burden were adjusted for the multivariate regression models