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Table 4 Oxidative stress parameters of organs in different experimental groups

From: The effects of quercetin on seizure, inflammation parameters and oxidative stress in acute on chronic tramadol intoxication

Groups Variable Control Tramadol Tramadol + single Quercetin Tramadol + chronic quercetin Tramadol + single Quercetin + Naloxone
Liver SOD (U/ml) 628.36 [604.3, 712.7] 673.3 [557.5, 686.7] 726.5[580.3, 898.5] 617.8 [594.6, 644.3] 759.4 [590.6, 855.48]
NOx (μmol/l) 15.2 ± 1.8 14.5 ± 2.1 11.7 ± 2.4 10.6 ± 0.5* 12.9 ± 2.5
MDA (μmol/l) 11.9 ± 3.9 8.7 ± 2.2 14.4 ± 2.1**,†,†† 9.5 ± 1.5 8.9 ± 3.2
Kidney SOD(U/ml) 832.2 ± 72.4 665.2 ± 78.7 758.7 ± 117.7 686.4 ± 83.7 741.9 ± 62.7
NOx (μmol/l) 16.1 ± 2.9 21.3 ± 8.3* 16.8 ± 2.2 12.44 ± 1.6** 16.34 ± 1.2
MDA (μmol/l) 20 ± 1.7 19 ± 2.6 21.5 ± 1.8 18.6 ± 2.1 20.7 ± 2.9
Heart SOD(U/ml) 695.3 ± 183 792.3 ± 136.7 948 ± 95 725.3 ± 268 651 ± 120
NOx (μmol/l) 11.2 [10.6,12.25] 11.06 [9.3, 13.1] 12.6 [10.5,15.6] †† 11.9 [11.9, 14.1] †† 9.5 [7.08, 10.7]
MDA (μmol/l) 17.9 ± 4.2 10.2 ± 2.5* 9.4 ± 0.7* 8.6 ± 0.5* 8.9 ± 0.9*
Cerebellum SOD(U/ml) 292.3 ± 21.26 319.8 ± 35.5 298.6 ± 19.7 278.9 ± 20.7 295.5 ± 27.06
NOx (μmol/l) 8.08 ± 1.3 7.5 ± 0.6 7.64 ± 1.2 8.49 ± 1.4 8.01 ± 1.5
MDA (μmol/l) 5.6 ± 1.3 4.5 ± 1.1 5.3 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.6 5.3 ± 1.5
Cortex SOD(U/ml) 258.9 ± 15.32 275.7 ± 23.1 272.2 ± 17.5 260.1 ± 14.58 273.08 ± 10.11
NOx (μmol/l) 3.46 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 2.2 2.65 ± 1.04†† 1.53 ± 0.7†† 6 ± 1.68*
MDA (μmol/l) 4.86 [4.03, 5.6] 4.6 [4.2, 6.7] 4.9 [4.4, 6.1] 4.6 [4.2,6.1] 4.5 [4.4, 5.2]
Adrenal SOD(U/ml) 577.3 ± 77.2 572 ± 50.5 576.6 ± 85.9 460.9 ± 48.4 584 ± 135
NOx (μmol/l) 17.6 ± 3.5 17.1 ± 3.1 15.7 ± 4.2 15.3 ± 1.4 14.5 ± 2.8
MDA (μmol/l) 4.5 [4.1, 4.8] 3.02 [2.6, 3.3] 2.4 [2.2,3.1] * 2.06 [1.9, 2.2] *,** 2.3 [2.1, 2.3] *
  1. * p < 0.05 significant as compared to the control group
  2. ** p < 0.05 significant as compared to tramadol group
  3. p < 0.05 significant as compared to Tramadol + chronic Quercetin group
  4. †† p < 0.05 significant as compared to Tramadol + single Quercetin + Naloxone
  5. Statistical comparison between groups was made using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc or Kruskal Wallis test and Dunn-Bonferroni post hoc
  6. Values are mean ± SD or median [IQR]