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Clinical pharmacology

Section edited by Catherine Sherwin 

This section considers submissions that focus on all areas of clinical pharmacology including rational prescribing, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacovigillance, pharmacoepidemiology and clinical trials.

Page 1 of 5

  1. Content type: Research article

    Pharmaceutical opioid analgesic use continues to rise and is associated with potentially preventable harm including hospitalisation for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Spatial detection of opioid-related ADRs c...

    Authors: Wei Du, Shanley Chong, Andrew J. McLachlan, Lan Luo, Nicholas Glasgow and Danijela Gnjidic

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:55

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Apixaban effectively lowers the risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Systemic exposure to a given apixaban dose depends on multiple clearance pathway...

    Authors: Andrea Huppertz, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Chris Dumschat, Kathrin I. Foerster, Jürgen Burhenne, Johanna Weiss, David Czock, Jan C. Purrucker, Timolaos Rizos and Walter E. Haefeli

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:53

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  3. Content type: Case report

    Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics for psychotic disorders provide advantages in treatment compliance, but data on their use in pregnancy are very limited. We present a clinical case of aripiprazole L...

    Authors: Isabel Ballester-Gracia, Miriam Pérez-Almarcha, Ana Galvez-Llompart and Miguel Hernandez-Viadel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:52

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Tigecycline, the first glycylcycline-class drug, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. We describe a case of sustained and severe hypoglycemia in a patient ...

    Authors: Yixin Chen, Lin Li, Nan Zhang and Hong Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:50

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The progress of mass, community-directed, treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis control was disrupted by severe adverse effects (SAE) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The study aimed at...

    Authors: Jean-Claude Makenga Bof, Daniel Muteba, Paul Mansiangi, Félicien Ilunga-Ilunga and Yves Coppieters

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:49

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  6. Content type: Study protocol

    Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a significant health issue affecting Aboriginal Australians. Long-term hearing loss can cause communication problems, educational disadvantage, and social isolation. ...

    Authors: Christine Wigger, Amanda Jane Leach, Jemima Beissbarth, Victor Oguoma, Ruth Lennox, Sandra Nelson, Hemi Patel, Mark Chatfield, Kathy Currie, Harvey Coates, Keith Edwards, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Kim Hare, Paul Torzillo, Steven Tong and Peter Morris

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:46

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Pneumonia patients are usually hospitalized due to severe nature of the disease or for the management of comorbid illnesses or associated symptoms. Such patients are prescribed with multiple medications which ...

    Authors: Sidra Noor, Mohammad Ismail and Zahid Ali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:45

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  8. Content type: Research article

    This analysis was designed to investigate the relationship between drug application and mortality rate in Chinese older coronary artery disease (CAD)/chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with and without low g...

    Authors: Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Ping Ye and Leiming Luo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:44

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Treatment guidelines suggest either a low-dose or high-dose approach when prescribing amikacin for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM PD), but data supporting the low-dose approach are limited...

    Authors: Maria Luisa Aznar, Theodore K. Marras, Ahmed Said Elshal, Mahtab Mehrabi and Sarah K. Brode

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:37

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) present a significant source of adverse drug reactions. Despite being one of the commonly cited risks to patient safety, prevention of DDIs still poses a challenge to healthcare s...

    Authors: Anna Somogyi-Végh, Zsófia Ludányi, Ábel Erdős and Lajos Botz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:36

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Wound infections are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Specifically, surgical site infections are the third most commonly reported nosocomial infections accounting approximat...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Teshager Worku and Dumessa Edessa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:35

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between statin use and new-onset diabetes in clinical settings and to assess its effect modification (heterogeneity) among patients with various medical...

    Authors: Keiko Yamazaki, Yasuo Takahashi, Kotoe Teduka, Tomohiro Nakayama, Yayoi Nishida and Satoshi Asai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:34

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are clinically significant dose-related adverse effects associated with second-line anti-tubercular injectables drugs (aminoglycosides and capreomycin) used during intensive phas...

    Authors: Workineh Shibeshi, Anandi N. Sheth, Addisu Admasu, Alemseged Beyene Berha, Zenebe Negash and Getnet Yimer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:31

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  14. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the one-year visual and anatomical outcomes of combination therapy with intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).

    Authors: Hsin-Yu Weng, Tzu-Lun Huang, Pei-Yao Chang and Jia-Kang Wang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:29

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Thromboprophylaxis dosing strategies using enoxaparin in elderly patients with renal disease are limited, while dose adjustments or monitoring of anti-Xa levels are recommended. We sought to evaluate the effic...

    Authors: Nibal Chamoun, Hady Ghanem, Ahmad Hachem, Essa Hariri, Christelle Lteif, Hanine Mansour, Hani Dimassi, Richard Zalloum and Georges Ghanem

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:27

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Daptomycin is an important drug used in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. A high dose of daptomycin is indicated for an MRSA infection with a minimum inhibitory concen...

    Authors: Yi-Chien Lee, Pao-Yu Chen, Jann-Tay Wang and Shan-Chwen Chang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:25

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Monitoring the safety of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a challenge in resource-constrained countries such as Eritrea due to their serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study was aimed at assessing...

    Authors: Lidya Hagos, Siyoma Fessehaye and Indermeet Singh Anand

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:24

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a significant cause of emergency department (ED) visits, with a major impact on healthcare resource utilization. A multicentre observational study, aimed to describe frequency, s...

    Authors: Ivan Lo Giudice, Eleonora Mocciaro, Claudia Giardina, Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Giuseppe Cicala, Maria Gioffrè-Florio, Giuseppe Carpinteri, Aulo Di Grande, Edoardo Spina, Vincenzo Arcoraci and Paola Maria Cutroneo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:21

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Tigecycline, with broad in vitro antibacterial activity, has been widely used off-label for nosocomial pneumonia caused by multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB). However, many concerns have been ra...

    Authors: Yangang Zhou, Xumin Chen, Ping Xu, Yan Zhu, Kuangguo Wang, Daxiong Xiang, Feng Wang and Hoan Linh Banh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:19

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The effects of β blockers on the primary prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity were controversial.

    Authors: Yingxu Ma, Fan Bai, Fen Qin, Jiayi Li, Na Liu, Dongping Li, Tengfang Li, Hui Xie, Da Liu, Shenghua Zhou and Qiming Liu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:18

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are newer oral anti-diabetic agents which have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In...

    Authors: Dan Liu, Biao Jin, Wei Chen and Peng Yun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:15

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  22. Content type: Case report

    True hypersensitivity reactions to rifampicin are relatively rare, nonetheless severe manifestations mostly involving a single organ have been documented. We report a case of acute multi-organ failure occurrin...

    Authors: Lisa Brockhaus, Yasmin Schmid, Anna C. Rast, Alexandra E. Rätz Bravo, Kathrin Scherer Hofmeier and Anne B. Leuppi-Taegtmeyer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:9

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  23. Content type: Research article

    This active, open observational study aimed to investigate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with six commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in southern Chinese outpatients with epilepsy from 2003 to ...

    Authors: Yanru Du, Jiahe Lin, Jingzan Shen, Siqi Ding, Mengqian Ye, Li Wang, Yi Wang, Xinshi Wang, Niange Xia, Rongyuan Zheng, Hong Chen and Huiqin Xu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:7

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Nausea is more difficult to control than vomiting in chemotherapy. We therefore analyzed the efficacy of a strong supportive treatment with aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasone against nausea for variou...

    Authors: Naohisa Yoshida, Tetsuya Taguchi, Masayoshi Nakanishi, Ken Inoue, Tetsuya Okayama, Takeshi Ishikawa, Eigo Otsuji, Koichi Takayama, Haruo Kuroboshi, Motohiro Kanazawa and Yoshito Itoh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:6

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Fibrosis is a response to chronic liver disease that results in excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins and formation of scar tissue. Fibrosis represents a clinical challenge of worldwide signi...

    Authors: Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Miguel Dibildox-Martinez, Jahir Sosa-Noguera, Ramón Sánchez-Medal and Francisco J. Flores-Murrieta

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:5

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:14

  26. Content type: Technical advance

    Methotrexate is an important component in many chemotherapy protocols. The blood concentration of Methotrexate is used to determine the regimen of folinic acid. However, the lower limit of Siemens assay kit is...

    Authors: Xiaoping Shi, Hui Gao, Zhong Li, Jinghua Li, Yang Liu, Lujuan Li and Qi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:3

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  27. Content type: Research article

    2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) is a selective scavenger of dicarbonyl electrophiles that protects proteins and lipids from being modified by these electrophiles. It is currently being developed for use as a nut...

    Authors: Lisa M. Pitchford, John A. Rathmacher, John C. Fuller Jr, J. Scott Daniels, Ryan D. Morrison, Wendall S. Akers, Naji N. Abumrad, Venkataraman Amarnath, Patricia M. Currey, L. Jackson Roberts, John A. Oates and Olivier Boutaud

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:1

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  28. Content type: Case report

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which is used to treat and prevent several dysrhythmias. This includes ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, wide complex tachycardia, as well as atrial fibrillation (A...

    Authors: Egle Karinauske, Silvijus Abramavicius, Greta Musteikiene, Edgaras Stankevicius, Jurgita Zaveckiene, Vidas Pilvinis and Edmundas Kadusevicius

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:88

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Aging population, is a reality in many countries because of improvement in the health care, patient safety and other supplemental factors. Pharmacotherapy in this population must be evaluated due to their high...

    Authors: Faisal Shakeel, Muhammad Aamir, Ahmad Farooq Khan, Tayyiba Nader Khan and Samiullah Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:85

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  30. Content type: Research article

    There is little information on the frequency of drug incompatibilities in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and the agents most commonly involved in them. The objective of the study was to characterize pote...

    Authors: Ramon Weyler Leopoldino, Haline Tereza Costa, Tatiana Xavier Costa, Rand Randall Martins and António Gouveia Oliveira

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:83

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  31. Content type: Case report

    Mirtazapine is a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant; its pharmacological profile indicates a low risk for dopaminergic adverse effects. To date, there has been only a single case report of ...

    Authors: Yuji Yamada, Harumasa Takano, Maki Yamada, Naoko Satake, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Mitsutoshi Okazaki and Kazuyuki Nakagome

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:82

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  32. Content type: Case report

    The use of isavuconazole is approved for the management of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis, only in adults, as no paediatric pharmacology studies have been reported to date. Very few paediatric cases h...

    Authors: Marjorie Cornu, Bénédicte Bruno, Séverine Loridant, Pauline Navarin, Nadine François, Fanny Lanternier, Elisa Amzallag-Bellenger, François Dubos, Françoise Mazingue and Boualem Sendid

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:81

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Pazopanib is indicated in the first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). The aim of this study was to review the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of pazopanib and see how these aspects ...

    Authors: María José Méndez-Vidal, Áurea Molina, Urbano Anido, Isabel Chirivella, Olatz Etxaniz, Eva Fernández-Parra, Marta Guix, Carolina Hernández, Julio Lambea, Álvaro Montesa, Álvaro Pinto, Silverio Ros and Enrique Gallardo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:77

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  34. Content type: Case report

    Severe systemic reactions resembling septic shock have been described following trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) administration. Nearly all cases described in the literature occurred in HIV-infected pat...

    Authors: Patricia Liu, Gregory P. Ranches and Jeffrey A. Gold

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:76

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  35. Content type: Case report

    Diffuse alveolar bleeding is a potentially life-threatening condition that can be induced by several drugs. Whereas fatal cases have been reported in patients treated for other indications, no report have so f...

    Authors: Aija Zuleron Myro, Gisle Bjerke, Svetozar Zarnovicky and Trygve Holmøy

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:75

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  36. Content type: Case report

    Drug induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is a rare complication and often underdiagnosed. DIIHA is frequently associated with a bad outcome, including organ failure and even death. For the last decades, ce...

    Authors: Hans Benno Leicht, Elke Weinig, Beate Mayer, Johannes Viebahn, Andreas Geier and Monika Rau

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:67

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Children are subject to varying drug pharmacokinetics which influence plasma drug levels, and hence treatment outcomes especially for drugs like efavirenz whose plasma concentrations are directly related to tr...

    Authors: Selemani Saidi Sungi, Eliford Ngaimisi, Nzovu Ulenga, Philip Sasi and Sabina Mugusi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:66

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Generic drugs may help to support antiretroviral treatment. We want to assess the efficacy and safety at 24 weeks of the change of coformulated (abacavir + lamivudine + dolutegravir) to (abacavir + lamivudine)...

    Authors: Julián Olalla, Javier Pérez-Stachowski, Begoña Tortajada, Alfonso Del Arco, Efrén Márquez, Javier De la Torre, Miriam Nieto, José María García de Lomas, José Luis Prada and Javier García-Alegría

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:63

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  39. Content type: Case report

    Valproic acid (VPA) and warfarin are commonly prescribed for patients with epilepsy and concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF). When VPA and warfarin are prescribed together, clinically important interactions ma...

    Authors: Chenguang Zhou, Yi Sui, Weijin Zhao, Chunyao Dong, Li Ren, Pingmei Song, Bing Xu and Xiaohong Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:60

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Efficacy trials showed that glucagon-like peptide–1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists reduced metabolic risk factors in addition to glucose lowering, but the cardiovascular and microvascular efficacy of this drug clas...

    Authors: Xiaowen Zhang, Fei Shao, Lin Zhu, Yuyang Ze, Dalong Zhu and Yan Bi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:58

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Self-medication is the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders and/or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for recurrent disease or symptoms. This phenomenon is alarmingly...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Getnet Mengistu and Dumessa Edessa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:56

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Recently, several newer antiplatelet treatment strategies have been used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Apart from the dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) consisting of aspirin and clopidogrel, d...

    Authors: Xiaojun Zhuo, Bi Zhuo, Shenyu Ouyang, Pei Niu and Mou Xiao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:54

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Accurate identification and routine preventive practices are crucial steps in lessening the incidence of medications and patients related adverse drug reactions (ADRs).

    Authors: Monica Danial, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Loke Meng Ong and Amer Hayat Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:52

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is a practical and effective way of delivering antimicrobial therapy, but may be associated with significant risk for hospital readmission. This study aimed t...

    Authors: Victoria Huang, Jorg J. Ruhe, Polina Lerner and Marianna Fedorenko

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:50

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Upper respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of misuse of antibiotics, a problem that leads to unnecessary adverse events and antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic prescription in Ecuador was analyzed ...

    Authors: Xavier Sánchez Choez, María Luciana Armijos Acurio and Ruth E. Jimbo Sotomayor

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:46

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  46. Content type: Case report

    Polymyxin B (PMB), which is regarded as the ultimate antibacterial treatment against some intractable gram-negative bacteria with its outstanding anti-bacterial activities, inflicts several adverse effects on ...

    Authors: Guanhao Zheng, Li Cao, Zaiqian Che, Enqiang Mao, Erzhen Chen and Juan He

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:41

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Ambroxol relieves cough symptoms based on its secretagogue, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, immunomodulatory and local anesthetic effects. The present study was designed to explore...

    Authors: Peter Kardos, Kai-Michael Beeh, Ulrike Sent, Tobias Mueck, Heidemarie Gräter and Martin C. Michel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:40

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Immunosuppressant drugs for renal transplant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) cause gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The specific site of GI tract targeted by MMF an...

    Authors: Yichen Jia, Rulin Wang, Long Li, Ying Zhang, Jiawei Li, Jina Wang, Xuanchuan Wang, Guisheng Qi, Ruiming Rong, Ming Xu and Tongyu Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:39

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