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Clinical pharmacology

This section considers submissions that focus on all areas of clinical pharmacology including rational prescribing, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacovigillance, pharmacoepidemiology and clinical trials.

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  1. High-intensity statin therapy is typically used in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for secondary prevention. However, there have been consistent concerns regarding its association with diabetes...

    Authors: Jah Yeon Choi, Cheol Ung Choi, Byoung Geol Choi, Yoonjee Park, Dong Oh Kang, Won Young Jang, Woohyeun Kim, Jin Oh Na, Jin Won Kim, Eung Ju Kim, Seung-Woon Rha, Chang Gyu Park, Hong Seog Seo, Myung Ho Jeong, Sung-Chull Chae, In-Whan Seong…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:11

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Hormonal receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed molecular subtype of breast cancer; which showed good response to doxorubicin (DOX)-based chemotherapy. Eugenol (EUG) and astaxanth...

    Authors: Mariam A. Fouad, Mohamed M. Sayed-Ahmed, Etimad A. Huwait, Hafez F. Hafez and Abdel-Moneim M. Osman

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:8

    Content type: Research article

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  3. A novel, high bioavailability oral, enteric coated tablet formulation of S-adenosylmethionine (MSI-195) has been developed for life science application. The present research reports on a Phase 1 study to (i) d...

    Authors: Beth R. Cameron, Ludvina Ferreira and I. David MacDonald

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Aging populations are often accompanied by comorbidity and polypharmacy, leading to increases in adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We sought to evaluate the causes and characteristics of ADRs in older Korean adul...

    Authors: Seong-Dae Woo, Jiwon Yoon, Go-Eun Doo, Youjin Park, Youngsoo Lee, So-Hee Lee, Young-Hee Lee and Young-Min Ye

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:87

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Bempedoic acid is a new drug that reduces cholesterol synthesis via inhibiting ATP citrate lyase. It remains unclear whether the combination of bempedoic acid and other lipid-lowering drugs is better than thes...

    Authors: Xiang Zhao, Xubiao Ma, Xing Luo, Zhihua Shi, Ziwen Deng, Yuanxiang Jin, Zhipeng Xiao, Liming Tan, Pingfang Liu, Shilong Jiang, Yuanglu Shu, Bing Tang and Chengfeng Qiu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:86

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Hypertension is the the primary cause of diastolic heart failure. Oxidative stress plays an important role in cardiac diastolic dysfunction caused by hypertension. The occurrence of oxidative stress is related...

    Authors: Xiaoli Guan, Xiaoying Guan, Changhong Lu, Bo Shang, Yuan Zhao, Ying Meng and Zhengyi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:84

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Cigarette smoking is a critical risk factor for the destruction of lung parenchyma or the development of emphysema, which is characteristic of COPD. Disruption of epithelial layer integrity may contribute to l...

    Authors: Cheng-hsiung Chen, Yi-Rong Li, Sheng-Hao Lin, Hsiu-Hui Chang, Woei-Horng Chai, Po-Chiang Chan and Ching-Hsiung Lin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Of patients receiving moderate emetic risk chemotherapy (MEC), 30–90% experience chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV); however, the optimal antiemetic treatment remains controversial.

    Authors: Reiko Matsui, Kenichi Suzuki, Tomomi Takiguchi, Makoto Nishio, Takeshi Koike, Toshinobu Hayashi, Takashi Seto, Yuki Kogure, Naoyuki Nogami, Kimiko Fujiwara, Hiroyasu Kaneda, Tomohiko Harada, Satoru Shimizu, Masashi Kimura, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Mototsugu Shimokawa…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:72

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Combined inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes may be an efficient treatment for acute leukemia. The primary objective of this phase I single...

    Authors: Fabian Lang, Lydia Wunderle, Susanne Badura, Eberhard Schleyer, Monika Brüggemann, Hubert Serve, Susanne Schnittger, Nicola Gökbuget, Heike Pfeifer, Sebastian Wagner, Kevin Ashelford, Gesine Bug and Oliver G. Ottmann

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:70

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT) is currently being used in clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors by inhibiting tumor immune escape. A ...

    Authors: Huihan Ma, Qian Qin, Jiaqing Mi and Qinmei Feng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:67

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Drug-drug interaction is an emerging threat to public health. Currently, there is an increase in comorbid disease, polypharmacy, and hospitalization in Ethiopia. Thus, the possibility of drug-drug interaction ...

    Authors: Wondim Ayenew, Getahun Asmamaw and Arebu Issa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:63

    Content type: Research article

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  12. To investigate the effects of coadministration of esaxerenone with amlodipine on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of each drug, and of esaxerenone on the PK of digoxin.

    Authors: Yoshiaki Kirigaya, Masanari Shiramoto, Tomoko Ishizuka, Hinako Uchimaru, Shin Irie, Manabu Kato, Takako Shimizu, Takafumi Nakatsu, Yasuhiro Nishikawa and Hitoshi Ishizuka

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:55

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The pharmacokinetics of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be affected by food intake. We aimed to evaluate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole, rabeprazole, and pantoprazole.

    Authors: Dolores Ochoa, Manuel Román, Teresa Cabaleiro, Miriam Saiz-Rodríguez, Gina Mejía and Francisco Abad-Santos

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  14. To assess adherence to and preference for vitamin D substitution with different pharmaceutical forms and frequencies of administration.

    Authors: Jean-Pierre Rothen, Jonas Rutishauser, Philipp N. Walter, Kurt E. Hersberger and Isabelle Arnet

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  15. A trough concentration (Cmin) ≥20 μg/mL of teicoplanin is recommended for the treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, sufficient clinical evidence to support t...

    Authors: Takashi Ueda, Yoshio Takesue, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Kaoru Ichiki, Kaori Ishikawa, Yoshiko Takai, Kumiko Yamada, Toshie Tsuchida, Naruhito Otani, Yoshiko Takahashi, Mika Ishihara, Shingo Takubo, Hiroki Ikeuchi, Motoi Uchino and Takeshi Kimura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Paracetamol/Orphenadrine is a fixed dose combination containing 35 mg orphenadrine and 450 mg paracetamol. It has analgesic and muscle relaxant properties and is widely available as generics. This study is con...

    Authors: Kit Yee Cheah, Kar Yee Mah, Lai Hui Pang, Shi Min Ng, Jia Woei Wong, Siew Siew Tan, Hong Zhe Tan and Kah Hay Yuen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:45

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) demonstrated good glycemic efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) recent years, whereas studies on GLP-1 RAs’ biliary effects were limit...

    Authors: Boyu Li, Yanjin Hu, Guang Wang and Lihong Liu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Fluoroquinolones are used for conditions including sinusitis, bronchitis, and urinary tract infections. It has been suggested that exposure to fluoroquinolones for these conditions is associated with disabilit...

    Authors: Marsha A. Wilcox, Angelina Villasis-Keever, Anthony G. Sena, Christopher Knoll and Daniel Fife

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Rivaroxaban, a novel oral anticoagulant drug, is widely used in clinical practice. There is no standardized laboratory monitoring for rivaroxaban, and its plasma concentration in Chinese patients with deep vei...

    Authors: Ying Li, Liping Du, Xiaowan Tang, Yuexin Chen and Dan Mei

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:38

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Despite its cardiotoxicity doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of paediatric malignancies. Current treatment regimens appear to be suboptimal as treatment strategies vary and do not follow a clear pha...

    Authors: Christian Siebel, Gudrun Würthwein, Claudia Lanvers-Kaminsky, Nicolas André, Frank Berthold, Ilaria Castelli, Pascal Chastagner, François Doz, Martin English, Gabriele Escherich, Michael C. Frühwald, Norbert Graf, Andreas H. Groll, Antonio Ruggiero, Georg Hempel and Joachim Boos

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:37

    Content type: Research article

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  21. There are no reports on investigations of the characteristics of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports for pediatric patients in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database (JADER) and the utility of databas...

    Authors: Aoi Noda, Takamasa Sakai, Taku Obara, Makoto Miyazaki, Masami Tsuchiya, Gen Oyanagi, Yuriko Murai and Nariyasu Mano

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:36

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to systematically compare the post percutaneous coronary interventional (PCI) adverse bleeding events, stent thrombosis, stroke and other cardiovascular outcomes in a population...

    Authors: Manyun Long, Ziliang Ye, Jing Zheng, Wuxian Chen and Lang Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Fenoverine is a spasmolytic drug that has been used to treat abdominal pain. Although sporadic case reports or case series of rhabdomyolysis associated with fenoverine have been published, there are no studies...

    Authors: Junhyeong Cho, Jeonggu Na, Eunjin Bae, Tae Won Lee, Ha Nee Jang, Hyun Seop Cho, Se-Ho Chang and Dong Jun Park

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects on laboratory parameters among monotherapy with five DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

    Authors: Yayoi Nishida, Yasuo Takahashi, Kotoe Tezuka, Hayato Akimoto, Tomohiro Nakayama and Satoshi Asai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype with a poor prognosis. In the phase III PACIFIC study, durvalumab significantly improved progression-free survival and overa...

    Authors: Kazumi Nishino, Kei Kunimasa, Madoka Kimura, Takako Inoue, Motohiro Tamiya, Hanako Kuhara and Toru Kumagai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:26

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Older adults are more prone to develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs) since they exhibit numerous risk factors. The first aim was to analyse the number of spontaneous ADR reports regarding older adults (> 65) i...

    Authors: Diana Dubrall, Katja S. Just, Matthias Schmid, Julia C. Stingl and Bernhardt Sachs

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:25

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The study aimed to evaluate and compare the leukocyte chemotactic activities of various brimonidine tartrate (BT) eye drop formulations.

    Authors: Ruiz Simonato Alonso, Helena Parente Solari, Eduardo de França Damasceno, Miguel Noel Nascentes Burnier Jr. and Marcelo Palis Ventura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bactericidal effects of levofloxacin and ceftazidime as both monotherapy and combination therapy, and to determine their effects on resistance suppression in pa...

    Authors: L Zhao, X Li, X He and L Jian

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  29. After several decades, cisplatin continues to be an essential drug for the treatment of several tumors, however, its potential nephrotoxicity is still a clinically relevant issue. Identification of predisposin...

    Authors: Elena Galfetti, Alessandra Cerutti, Michele Ghielmini, Emanuele Zucca and Luciano Wannesson

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:19

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Pregabalin is an anticonvulsive, analgesic and anxiolytic medication. The typical side effects include dizziness, somnolence and weight gain. Few studies or case reports have demonstrated psychiatric side effe...

    Authors: Georgios Mousailidis, Basavaraja Papanna, Andrew Salmon, Aung Sein and Qutaiba Al-Hillawi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:16

    Content type: Case report

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  31. In developing countries, brand-generic substitution is not based on validated scientific evidence that confirm the therapeutic equivalence of the generic to the originator. Rather, decisions are made based on ...

    Authors: Eva Hobeika, Joanna Farhat, Joseph Saab, Walid Hleihel, Samar Azzi-Achkouty, Georges Sili, Souheil Hallit and Pascale Salameh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:15

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Whether Borna disease virus (BDV-1) is a human pathogen remained controversial until recent encephalitis cases showed BDV-1 infection could even be deadly. This called to mind previous evidence for an infectio...

    Authors: Detlef E. Dietrich, Liv Bode, Carsten W. Spannhuth, Hartmut Hecker, Hanns Ludwig and Hinderk M. Emrich

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:12

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Hyperuricemia is an abnormal increase in uric acid levels in the blood. It is the cause of gout that manifested by inflammatory arthritis and painful disable. Therefore, current study evaluated the potential a...

    Authors: Youssef Saeed Alghamdi, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman and Mohamed Abdo Nassan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  34. 2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) is a selective dicarbonyl electrophile scavenger being developed as a nutritional supplement to help protect against the development of conditions associated with dicarbonyl elect...

    Authors: Lisa M. Pitchford, Patricia M. Driver, John C. Fuller Jr, Wendell S. Akers, Naji N. Abumrad, Venkataraman Amarnath, Ginger L. Milne, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Fei Ye, L. Jackson Roberts II, M. Benjamin Shoemaker, John A. Oates, John A. Rathmacher and Olivier Boutaud

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Clopidogrel is an inactive prodrug, it catalyzed into its active form by Cytochrome 450 and Paraoxonase-1(PON-1). polymorphisms of genes encoding these enzymes will affect the efficacy of Clopidogrel. The main...

    Authors: Zhaowei Zhang, Mingxiao Chen, Long Zhang and Qiang Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:1

    Content type: Research article

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  36. FKB327 is a biosimilar of the adalimumab reference product (RP). The primary objective was to assess the relative bioavailability of FKB327 after a single subcutaneous (SC) dose via prefilled syringe (PFS), au...

    Authors: Jim Bush, Kazuki Kawakami and Rafael Muniz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:87

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic and analgesic agent, is known to improve the analgesic efficacy of opioids and to attenuate central sensitisation and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Clinical use is, however, ...

    Authors: Martyn Harvey, Jamie Sleigh, Logan Voss, Mike Bickerdike, Ivaylo Dimitrov and William Denny

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:85

    Content type: Research article

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  38. As a new generation antihistamine, fexofenadine has been widely used in allergic diseases. However, there is still a lack of collective evidence regarding the antihistamine effects and safety profiles of fexof...

    Authors: Cheng-zhi Huang, Zhi-hui Jiang, Jian Wang, Yue Luo and Hua Peng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:72

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Ability to manage urges to smoke is fundamental to maximizing the chances of success in smoking cessation. Previous studies have linked a higher dose of nicotine in nicotine replacement therapy to a higher suc...

    Authors: Anna Hansson, Thomas Rasmussen, Roland Perfekt, Elin Hall and Holger Kraiczi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:69

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Eribulin improves survival in pre-treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). However, limited data exist on co-morbidities and central nervous system (CNS) efficacy. The purpose of this study was to r...

    Authors: Milana Bergamino Sirvén, Adela Fernández-Ortega, Agostina Stradella, Idoia Morilla, Catalina Falo, Silvia Vázquez, Roser Castany, Rafael Villanueva, Sabela Recalde, Valentí Navarro Pérez, Miguel Gil-Gil and Sonia Pernas

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:68

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The management of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing (KPC) infections represents a major challenge. Several safety and efficacy concerns are shared by available antibiotics used in KPC infections, lead...

    Authors: Milo Gatti, Emanuel Raschi and Fabrizio De Ponti

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:65

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has markedly decreased the morbidity and mortality due to HIV/AIDS. ART regimen change is a major challenge for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment p...

    Authors: Zerihun Ataro, Birhanu Motbaynor, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Mekonnen Sisay, Tewodros Tesfa, Habtamu Mitiku, Dadi Marami, Zelalem Teklemariam and Zewdneh Shewamene

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:63

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Cardiovascular events (CVEs) was considered as one of the primary cause to reduce the quality of life in breast cancer patients with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) treatment, which has not been sufficiently addres...

    Authors: Yang He, Jianhua Zhang, Guofang Shen, Lin Liu, Qingwei Zhao, Xiaoyang Lu, Hongyu Yang and Dongsheng Hong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:62

    Content type: Research article

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  44. In recent years, targeted therapy has received widespread attention. Among these therapies, anti-angiogenic targeted drugs have become one of the hotspots of research. Apatinib is a novel oral small molecule a...

    Authors: Guohui Liu, Chunbo Wang, Yunlong He and Mingyan E

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:61

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting practices by health care professionals remain poor. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are perceived as safe; however, they can also cause ADRs. The objective of this study was ...

    Authors: Josipa Bukic, Doris Rusic, Petar Mas, Deni Karabatic, Josko Bozic, Ana Seselja Perisin, Dario Leskur, Darko Krnic, Sinisa Tomic and Darko Modun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:60

    Content type: Research article

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