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Clinical pharmacology

This section considers submissions that focus on all areas of clinical pharmacology including rational prescribing, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacovigillance, pharmacoepidemiology and clinical trials.

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  1. The indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT) is currently being used in clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors by inhibiting tumor immune escape. A ...

    Authors: Huihan Ma, Qian Qin, Jiaqing Mi and Qinmei Feng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:67

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Drug-drug interaction is an emerging threat to public health. Currently, there is an increase in comorbid disease, polypharmacy, and hospitalization in Ethiopia. Thus, the possibility of drug-drug interaction ...

    Authors: Wondim Ayenew, Getahun Asmamaw and Arebu Issa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:63

    Content type: Research article

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  3. To investigate the effects of coadministration of esaxerenone with amlodipine on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of each drug, and of esaxerenone on the PK of digoxin.

    Authors: Yoshiaki Kirigaya, Masanari Shiramoto, Tomoko Ishizuka, Hinako Uchimaru, Shin Irie, Manabu Kato, Takako Shimizu, Takafumi Nakatsu, Yasuhiro Nishikawa and Hitoshi Ishizuka

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:55

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The pharmacokinetics of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be affected by food intake. We aimed to evaluate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole, rabeprazole, and pantoprazole.

    Authors: Dolores Ochoa, Manuel Román, Teresa Cabaleiro, Miriam Saiz-Rodríguez, Gina Mejía and Francisco Abad-Santos

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  5. To assess adherence to and preference for vitamin D substitution with different pharmaceutical forms and frequencies of administration.

    Authors: Jean-Pierre Rothen, Jonas Rutishauser, Philipp N. Walter, Kurt E. Hersberger and Isabelle Arnet

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  6. A trough concentration (Cmin) ≥20 μg/mL of teicoplanin is recommended for the treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, sufficient clinical evidence to support t...

    Authors: Takashi Ueda, Yoshio Takesue, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Kaoru Ichiki, Kaori Ishikawa, Yoshiko Takai, Kumiko Yamada, Toshie Tsuchida, Naruhito Otani, Yoshiko Takahashi, Mika Ishihara, Shingo Takubo, Hiroki Ikeuchi, Motoi Uchino and Takeshi Kimura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Paracetamol/Orphenadrine is a fixed dose combination containing 35 mg orphenadrine and 450 mg paracetamol. It has analgesic and muscle relaxant properties and is widely available as generics. This study is con...

    Authors: Kit Yee Cheah, Kar Yee Mah, Lai Hui Pang, Shi Min Ng, Jia Woei Wong, Siew Siew Tan, Hong Zhe Tan and Kah Hay Yuen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:45

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) demonstrated good glycemic efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) recent years, whereas studies on GLP-1 RAs’ biliary effects were limit...

    Authors: Boyu Li, Yanjin Hu, Guang Wang and Lihong Liu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Fluoroquinolones are used for conditions including sinusitis, bronchitis, and urinary tract infections. It has been suggested that exposure to fluoroquinolones for these conditions is associated with disabilit...

    Authors: Marsha A. Wilcox, Angelina Villasis-Keever, Anthony G. Sena, Christopher Knoll and Daniel Fife

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Rivaroxaban, a novel oral anticoagulant drug, is widely used in clinical practice. There is no standardized laboratory monitoring for rivaroxaban, and its plasma concentration in Chinese patients with deep vei...

    Authors: Ying Li, Liping Du, Xiaowan Tang, Yuexin Chen and Dan Mei

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:38

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Despite its cardiotoxicity doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of paediatric malignancies. Current treatment regimens appear to be suboptimal as treatment strategies vary and do not follow a clear pha...

    Authors: Christian Siebel, Gudrun Würthwein, Claudia Lanvers-Kaminsky, Nicolas André, Frank Berthold, Ilaria Castelli, Pascal Chastagner, François Doz, Martin English, Gabriele Escherich, Michael C. Frühwald, Norbert Graf, Andreas H. Groll, Antonio Ruggiero, Georg Hempel and Joachim Boos

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:37

    Content type: Research article

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  12. There are no reports on investigations of the characteristics of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports for pediatric patients in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database (JADER) and the utility of databas...

    Authors: Aoi Noda, Takamasa Sakai, Taku Obara, Makoto Miyazaki, Masami Tsuchiya, Gen Oyanagi, Yuriko Murai and Nariyasu Mano

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:36

    Content type: Research article

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  13. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to systematically compare the post percutaneous coronary interventional (PCI) adverse bleeding events, stent thrombosis, stroke and other cardiovascular outcomes in a population...

    Authors: Manyun Long, Ziliang Ye, Jing Zheng, Wuxian Chen and Lang Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Fenoverine is a spasmolytic drug that has been used to treat abdominal pain. Although sporadic case reports or case series of rhabdomyolysis associated with fenoverine have been published, there are no studies...

    Authors: Junhyeong Cho, Jeonggu Na, Eunjin Bae, Tae Won Lee, Ha Nee Jang, Hyun Seop Cho, Se-Ho Chang and Dong Jun Park

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects on laboratory parameters among monotherapy with five DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

    Authors: Yayoi Nishida, Yasuo Takahashi, Kotoe Tezuka, Hayato Akimoto, Tomohiro Nakayama and Satoshi Asai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype with a poor prognosis. In the phase III PACIFIC study, durvalumab significantly improved progression-free survival and overa...

    Authors: Kazumi Nishino, Kei Kunimasa, Madoka Kimura, Takako Inoue, Motohiro Tamiya, Hanako Kuhara and Toru Kumagai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:26

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Older adults are more prone to develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs) since they exhibit numerous risk factors. The first aim was to analyse the number of spontaneous ADR reports regarding older adults (> 65) i...

    Authors: Diana Dubrall, Katja S. Just, Matthias Schmid, Julia C. Stingl and Bernhardt Sachs

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:25

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The study aimed to evaluate and compare the leukocyte chemotactic activities of various brimonidine tartrate (BT) eye drop formulations.

    Authors: Ruiz Simonato Alonso, Helena Parente Solari, Eduardo de França Damasceno, Miguel Noel Nascentes Burnier Jr. and Marcelo Palis Ventura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bactericidal effects of levofloxacin and ceftazidime as both monotherapy and combination therapy, and to determine their effects on resistance suppression in pa...

    Authors: L Zhao, X Li, X He and L Jian

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  20. After several decades, cisplatin continues to be an essential drug for the treatment of several tumors, however, its potential nephrotoxicity is still a clinically relevant issue. Identification of predisposin...

    Authors: Elena Galfetti, Alessandra Cerutti, Michele Ghielmini, Emanuele Zucca and Luciano Wannesson

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:19

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Pregabalin is an anticonvulsive, analgesic and anxiolytic medication. The typical side effects include dizziness, somnolence and weight gain. Few studies or case reports have demonstrated psychiatric side effe...

    Authors: Georgios Mousailidis, Basavaraja Papanna, Andrew Salmon, Aung Sein and Qutaiba Al-Hillawi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:16

    Content type: Case report

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  22. In developing countries, brand-generic substitution is not based on validated scientific evidence that confirm the therapeutic equivalence of the generic to the originator. Rather, decisions are made based on ...

    Authors: Eva Hobeika, Joanna Farhat, Joseph Saab, Walid Hleihel, Samar Azzi-Achkouty, Georges Sili, Souheil Hallit and Pascale Salameh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:15

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Whether Borna disease virus (BDV-1) is a human pathogen remained controversial until recent encephalitis cases showed BDV-1 infection could even be deadly. This called to mind previous evidence for an infectio...

    Authors: Detlef E. Dietrich, Liv Bode, Carsten W. Spannhuth, Hartmut Hecker, Hanns Ludwig and Hinderk M. Emrich

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:12

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Hyperuricemia is an abnormal increase in uric acid levels in the blood. It is the cause of gout that manifested by inflammatory arthritis and painful disable. Therefore, current study evaluated the potential a...

    Authors: Youssef Saeed Alghamdi, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman and Mohamed Abdo Nassan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  25. 2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) is a selective dicarbonyl electrophile scavenger being developed as a nutritional supplement to help protect against the development of conditions associated with dicarbonyl elect...

    Authors: Lisa M. Pitchford, Patricia M. Driver, John C. Fuller Jr, Wendell S. Akers, Naji N. Abumrad, Venkataraman Amarnath, Ginger L. Milne, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Fei Ye, L. Jackson Roberts II, M. Benjamin Shoemaker, John A. Oates, John A. Rathmacher and Olivier Boutaud

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Clopidogrel is an inactive prodrug, it catalyzed into its active form by Cytochrome 450 and Paraoxonase-1(PON-1). polymorphisms of genes encoding these enzymes will affect the efficacy of Clopidogrel. The main...

    Authors: Zhaowei Zhang, Mingxiao Chen, Long Zhang and Qiang Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:1

    Content type: Research article

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  27. FKB327 is a biosimilar of the adalimumab reference product (RP). The primary objective was to assess the relative bioavailability of FKB327 after a single subcutaneous (SC) dose via prefilled syringe (PFS), au...

    Authors: Jim Bush, Kazuki Kawakami and Rafael Muniz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:87

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic and analgesic agent, is known to improve the analgesic efficacy of opioids and to attenuate central sensitisation and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Clinical use is, however, ...

    Authors: Martyn Harvey, Jamie Sleigh, Logan Voss, Mike Bickerdike, Ivaylo Dimitrov and William Denny

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:85

    Content type: Research article

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  29. As a new generation antihistamine, fexofenadine has been widely used in allergic diseases. However, there is still a lack of collective evidence regarding the antihistamine effects and safety profiles of fexof...

    Authors: Cheng-zhi Huang, Zhi-hui Jiang, Jian Wang, Yue Luo and Hua Peng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:72

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Ability to manage urges to smoke is fundamental to maximizing the chances of success in smoking cessation. Previous studies have linked a higher dose of nicotine in nicotine replacement therapy to a higher suc...

    Authors: Anna Hansson, Thomas Rasmussen, Roland Perfekt, Elin Hall and Holger Kraiczi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:69

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Eribulin improves survival in pre-treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). However, limited data exist on co-morbidities and central nervous system (CNS) efficacy. The purpose of this study was to r...

    Authors: Milana Bergamino Sirvén, Adela Fernández-Ortega, Agostina Stradella, Idoia Morilla, Catalina Falo, Silvia Vázquez, Roser Castany, Rafael Villanueva, Sabela Recalde, Valentí Navarro Pérez, Miguel Gil-Gil and Sonia Pernas

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:68

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The management of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing (KPC) infections represents a major challenge. Several safety and efficacy concerns are shared by available antibiotics used in KPC infections, lead...

    Authors: Milo Gatti, Emanuel Raschi and Fabrizio De Ponti

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:65

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has markedly decreased the morbidity and mortality due to HIV/AIDS. ART regimen change is a major challenge for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment p...

    Authors: Zerihun Ataro, Birhanu Motbaynor, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Mekonnen Sisay, Tewodros Tesfa, Habtamu Mitiku, Dadi Marami, Zelalem Teklemariam and Zewdneh Shewamene

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:63

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Cardiovascular events (CVEs) was considered as one of the primary cause to reduce the quality of life in breast cancer patients with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) treatment, which has not been sufficiently addres...

    Authors: Yang He, Jianhua Zhang, Guofang Shen, Lin Liu, Qingwei Zhao, Xiaoyang Lu, Hongyu Yang and Dongsheng Hong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:62

    Content type: Research article

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  35. In recent years, targeted therapy has received widespread attention. Among these therapies, anti-angiogenic targeted drugs have become one of the hotspots of research. Apatinib is a novel oral small molecule a...

    Authors: Guohui Liu, Chunbo Wang, Yunlong He and Mingyan E

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:61

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting practices by health care professionals remain poor. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are perceived as safe; however, they can also cause ADRs. The objective of this study was ...

    Authors: Josipa Bukic, Doris Rusic, Petar Mas, Deni Karabatic, Josko Bozic, Ana Seselja Perisin, Dario Leskur, Darko Krnic, Sinisa Tomic and Darko Modun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:60

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Pharmaceutical opioid analgesic use continues to rise and is associated with potentially preventable harm including hospitalisation for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Spatial detection of opioid-related ADRs c...

    Authors: Wei Du, Shanley Chong, Andrew J. McLachlan, Lan Luo, Nicholas Glasgow and Danijela Gnjidic

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:55

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Apixaban effectively lowers the risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Systemic exposure to a given apixaban dose depends on multiple clearance pathway...

    Authors: Andrea Huppertz, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Chris Dumschat, Kathrin I. Foerster, Jürgen Burhenne, Johanna Weiss, David Czock, Jan C. Purrucker, Timolaos Rizos and Walter E. Haefeli

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:53

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics for psychotic disorders provide advantages in treatment compliance, but data on their use in pregnancy are very limited. We present a clinical case of aripiprazole L...

    Authors: Isabel Ballester-Gracia, Miriam Pérez-Almarcha, Ana Galvez-Llompart and Miguel Hernandez-Viadel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:52

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Tigecycline, the first glycylcycline-class drug, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. We describe a case of sustained and severe hypoglycemia in a patient ...

    Authors: Yixin Chen, Lin Li, Nan Zhang and Hong Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:50

    Content type: Case report

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  41. The progress of mass, community-directed, treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis control was disrupted by severe adverse effects (SAE) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The study aimed at...

    Authors: Jean-Claude Makenga Bof, Daniel Muteba, Paul Mansiangi, Félicien Ilunga-Ilunga and Yves Coppieters

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:49

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a significant health issue affecting Aboriginal Australians. Long-term hearing loss can cause communication problems, educational disadvantage, and social isolation. ...

    Authors: Christine Wigger, Amanda Jane Leach, Jemima Beissbarth, Victor Oguoma, Ruth Lennox, Sandra Nelson, Hemi Patel, Mark Chatfield, Kathy Currie, Harvey Coates, Keith Edwards, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Kim Hare, Paul Torzillo, Steven Tong and Peter Morris

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:46

    Content type: Study protocol

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  43. Pneumonia patients are usually hospitalized due to severe nature of the disease or for the management of comorbid illnesses or associated symptoms. Such patients are prescribed with multiple medications which ...

    Authors: Sidra Noor, Mohammad Ismail and Zahid Ali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:45

    Content type: Research article

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  44. This analysis was designed to investigate the relationship between drug application and mortality rate in Chinese older coronary artery disease (CAD)/chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with and without low g...

    Authors: Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Ping Ye and Leiming Luo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:44

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Treatment guidelines suggest either a low-dose or high-dose approach when prescribing amikacin for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM PD), but data supporting the low-dose approach are limited...

    Authors: Maria Luisa Aznar, Theodore K. Marras, Ahmed Said Elshal, Mahtab Mehrabi and Sarah K. Brode

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:37

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) present a significant source of adverse drug reactions. Despite being one of the commonly cited risks to patient safety, prevention of DDIs still poses a challenge to healthcare s...

    Authors: Anna Somogyi-Végh, Zsófia Ludányi, Ábel Erdős and Lajos Botz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:36

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Wound infections are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Specifically, surgical site infections are the third most commonly reported nosocomial infections accounting approximat...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Teshager Worku and Dumessa Edessa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:35

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between statin use and new-onset diabetes in clinical settings and to assess its effect modification (heterogeneity) among patients with various medical...

    Authors: Keiko Yamazaki, Yasuo Takahashi, Kotoe Teduka, Tomohiro Nakayama, Yayoi Nishida and Satoshi Asai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:34

    Content type: Research article

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