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Clinical pharmacology

Section edited by Catherine Sherwin 

This section considers submissions that focus on all areas of clinical pharmacology including rational prescribing, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacovigillance, pharmacoepidemiology and clinical trials.

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  1. Thromboprophylaxis dosing strategies using enoxaparin in elderly patients with renal disease are limited, while dose adjustments or monitoring of anti-Xa levels are recommended. We sought to evaluate the effic...

    Authors: Nibal Chamoun, Hady Ghanem, Ahmad Hachem, Essa Hariri, Christelle Lteif, Hanine Mansour, Hani Dimassi, Richard Zalloum and Georges Ghanem

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:27

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Daptomycin is an important drug used in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. A high dose of daptomycin is indicated for an MRSA infection with a minimum inhibitory concen...

    Authors: Yi-Chien Lee, Pao-Yu Chen, Jann-Tay Wang and Shan-Chwen Chang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:25

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Monitoring the safety of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a challenge in resource-constrained countries such as Eritrea due to their serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study was aimed at assessing...

    Authors: Lidya Hagos, Siyoma Fessehaye and Indermeet Singh Anand

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:24

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a significant cause of emergency department (ED) visits, with a major impact on healthcare resource utilization. A multicentre observational study, aimed to describe frequency, s...

    Authors: Ivan Lo Giudice, Eleonora Mocciaro, Claudia Giardina, Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Giuseppe Cicala, Maria Gioffrè-Florio, Giuseppe Carpinteri, Aulo Di Grande, Edoardo Spina, Vincenzo Arcoraci and Paola Maria Cutroneo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:21

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Tigecycline, with broad in vitro antibacterial activity, has been widely used off-label for nosocomial pneumonia caused by multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB). However, many concerns have been ra...

    Authors: Yangang Zhou, Xumin Chen, Ping Xu, Yan Zhu, Kuangguo Wang, Daxiong Xiang, Feng Wang and Hoan Linh Banh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:19

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The effects of β blockers on the primary prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity were controversial.

    Authors: Yingxu Ma, Fan Bai, Fen Qin, Jiayi Li, Na Liu, Dongping Li, Tengfang Li, Hui Xie, Da Liu, Shenghua Zhou and Qiming Liu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:18

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are newer oral anti-diabetic agents which have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In...

    Authors: Dan Liu, Biao Jin, Wei Chen and Peng Yun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:15

    Content type: Research article

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  8. True hypersensitivity reactions to rifampicin are relatively rare, nonetheless severe manifestations mostly involving a single organ have been documented. We report a case of acute multi-organ failure occurrin...

    Authors: Lisa Brockhaus, Yasmin Schmid, Anna C. Rast, Alexandra E. Rätz Bravo, Kathrin Scherer Hofmeier and Anne B. Leuppi-Taegtmeyer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:9

    Content type: Case report

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  9. This active, open observational study aimed to investigate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with six commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in southern Chinese outpatients with epilepsy from 2003 to ...

    Authors: Yanru Du, Jiahe Lin, Jingzan Shen, Siqi Ding, Mengqian Ye, Li Wang, Yi Wang, Xinshi Wang, Niange Xia, Rongyuan Zheng, Hong Chen and Huiqin Xu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:7

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Nausea is more difficult to control than vomiting in chemotherapy. We therefore analyzed the efficacy of a strong supportive treatment with aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasone against nausea for variou...

    Authors: Naohisa Yoshida, Tetsuya Taguchi, Masayoshi Nakanishi, Ken Inoue, Tetsuya Okayama, Takeshi Ishikawa, Eigo Otsuji, Koichi Takayama, Haruo Kuroboshi, Motohiro Kanazawa and Yoshito Itoh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:6

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Fibrosis is a response to chronic liver disease that results in excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins and formation of scar tissue. Fibrosis represents a clinical challenge of worldwide signi...

    Authors: Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Miguel Dibildox-Martinez, Jahir Sosa-Noguera, Ramón Sánchez-Medal and Francisco J. Flores-Murrieta

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:5

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:14

  12. Methotrexate is an important component in many chemotherapy protocols. The blood concentration of Methotrexate is used to determine the regimen of folinic acid. However, the lower limit of Siemens assay kit is...

    Authors: Xiaoping Shi, Hui Gao, Zhong Li, Jinghua Li, Yang Liu, Lujuan Li and Qi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:3

    Content type: Technical advance

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  13. 2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) is a selective scavenger of dicarbonyl electrophiles that protects proteins and lipids from being modified by these electrophiles. It is currently being developed for use as a nut...

    Authors: Lisa M. Pitchford, John A. Rathmacher, John C. Fuller Jr, J. Scott Daniels, Ryan D. Morrison, Wendall S. Akers, Naji N. Abumrad, Venkataraman Amarnath, Patricia M. Currey, L. Jackson Roberts, John A. Oates and Olivier Boutaud

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:1

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which is used to treat and prevent several dysrhythmias. This includes ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, wide complex tachycardia, as well as atrial fibrillation (A...

    Authors: Egle Karinauske, Silvijus Abramavicius, Greta Musteikiene, Edgaras Stankevicius, Jurgita Zaveckiene, Vidas Pilvinis and Edmundas Kadusevicius

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:88

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Aging population, is a reality in many countries because of improvement in the health care, patient safety and other supplemental factors. Pharmacotherapy in this population must be evaluated due to their high...

    Authors: Faisal Shakeel, Muhammad Aamir, Ahmad Farooq Khan, Tayyiba Nader Khan and Samiullah Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:85

    Content type: Research article

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  16. There is little information on the frequency of drug incompatibilities in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and the agents most commonly involved in them. The objective of the study was to characterize pote...

    Authors: Ramon Weyler Leopoldino, Haline Tereza Costa, Tatiana Xavier Costa, Rand Randall Martins and António Gouveia Oliveira

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:83

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Mirtazapine is a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant; its pharmacological profile indicates a low risk for dopaminergic adverse effects. To date, there has been only a single case report of ...

    Authors: Yuji Yamada, Harumasa Takano, Maki Yamada, Naoko Satake, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Mitsutoshi Okazaki and Kazuyuki Nakagome

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:82

    Content type: Case report

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  18. The use of isavuconazole is approved for the management of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis, only in adults, as no paediatric pharmacology studies have been reported to date. Very few paediatric cases h...

    Authors: Marjorie Cornu, Bénédicte Bruno, Séverine Loridant, Pauline Navarin, Nadine François, Fanny Lanternier, Elisa Amzallag-Bellenger, François Dubos, Françoise Mazingue and Boualem Sendid

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:81

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Pazopanib is indicated in the first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). The aim of this study was to review the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of pazopanib and see how these aspects ...

    Authors: María José Méndez-Vidal, Áurea Molina, Urbano Anido, Isabel Chirivella, Olatz Etxaniz, Eva Fernández-Parra, Marta Guix, Carolina Hernández, Julio Lambea, Álvaro Montesa, Álvaro Pinto, Silverio Ros and Enrique Gallardo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:77

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Severe systemic reactions resembling septic shock have been described following trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) administration. Nearly all cases described in the literature occurred in HIV-infected pat...

    Authors: Patricia Liu, Gregory P. Ranches and Jeffrey A. Gold

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:76

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Diffuse alveolar bleeding is a potentially life-threatening condition that can be induced by several drugs. Whereas fatal cases have been reported in patients treated for other indications, no report have so f...

    Authors: Aija Zuleron Myro, Gisle Bjerke, Svetozar Zarnovicky and Trygve Holmøy

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:75

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Drug induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is a rare complication and often underdiagnosed. DIIHA is frequently associated with a bad outcome, including organ failure and even death. For the last decades, ce...

    Authors: Hans Benno Leicht, Elke Weinig, Beate Mayer, Johannes Viebahn, Andreas Geier and Monika Rau

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:67

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Children are subject to varying drug pharmacokinetics which influence plasma drug levels, and hence treatment outcomes especially for drugs like efavirenz whose plasma concentrations are directly related to tr...

    Authors: Selemani Saidi Sungi, Eliford Ngaimisi, Nzovu Ulenga, Philip Sasi and Sabina Mugusi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:66

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Generic drugs may help to support antiretroviral treatment. We want to assess the efficacy and safety at 24 weeks of the change of coformulated (abacavir + lamivudine + dolutegravir) to (abacavir + lamivudine)...

    Authors: Julián Olalla, Javier Pérez-Stachowski, Begoña Tortajada, Alfonso Del Arco, Efrén Márquez, Javier De la Torre, Miriam Nieto, José María García de Lomas, José Luis Prada and Javier García-Alegría

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:63

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Valproic acid (VPA) and warfarin are commonly prescribed for patients with epilepsy and concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF). When VPA and warfarin are prescribed together, clinically important interactions ma...

    Authors: Chenguang Zhou, Yi Sui, Weijin Zhao, Chunyao Dong, Li Ren, Pingmei Song, Bing Xu and Xiaohong Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:60

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Efficacy trials showed that glucagon-like peptide–1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists reduced metabolic risk factors in addition to glucose lowering, but the cardiovascular and microvascular efficacy of this drug clas...

    Authors: Xiaowen Zhang, Fei Shao, Lin Zhu, Yuyang Ze, Dalong Zhu and Yan Bi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:58

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Self-medication is the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders and/or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for recurrent disease or symptoms. This phenomenon is alarmingly...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Getnet Mengistu and Dumessa Edessa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:56

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Recently, several newer antiplatelet treatment strategies have been used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Apart from the dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) consisting of aspirin and clopidogrel, d...

    Authors: Xiaojun Zhuo, Bi Zhuo, Shenyu Ouyang, Pei Niu and Mou Xiao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:54

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Accurate identification and routine preventive practices are crucial steps in lessening the incidence of medications and patients related adverse drug reactions (ADRs).

    Authors: Monica Danial, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Loke Meng Ong and Amer Hayat Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:52

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is a practical and effective way of delivering antimicrobial therapy, but may be associated with significant risk for hospital readmission. This study aimed t...

    Authors: Victoria Huang, Jorg J. Ruhe, Polina Lerner and Marianna Fedorenko

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:50

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Upper respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of misuse of antibiotics, a problem that leads to unnecessary adverse events and antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic prescription in Ecuador was analyzed ...

    Authors: Xavier Sánchez Choez, María Luciana Armijos Acurio and Ruth E. Jimbo Sotomayor

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:46

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Polymyxin B (PMB), which is regarded as the ultimate antibacterial treatment against some intractable gram-negative bacteria with its outstanding anti-bacterial activities, inflicts several adverse effects on ...

    Authors: Guanhao Zheng, Li Cao, Zaiqian Che, Enqiang Mao, Erzhen Chen and Juan He

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:41

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Ambroxol relieves cough symptoms based on its secretagogue, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, immunomodulatory and local anesthetic effects. The present study was designed to explore...

    Authors: Peter Kardos, Kai-Michael Beeh, Ulrike Sent, Tobias Mueck, Heidemarie Gräter and Martin C. Michel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:40

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Immunosuppressant drugs for renal transplant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) cause gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The specific site of GI tract targeted by MMF an...

    Authors: Yichen Jia, Rulin Wang, Long Li, Ying Zhang, Jiawei Li, Jina Wang, Xuanchuan Wang, Guisheng Qi, Ruiming Rong, Ming Xu and Tongyu Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:39

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glycemic control by promoting GLP1-mediated glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon. Sitagliptin and vildagliptin have been shown to imp...

    Authors: Girish Parthan, Shobhit Bhansali, Anura V. Kurpad, Rama Walia, Kishor Bhat and Anil Bhansali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:38

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The possibility of self-medication is higher in health sciences students than other students because of easy access to drug information resources and relatively sufficient familiarity with various kinds of dru...

    Authors: Alireza Abdi, Azam Faraji, Fateme Dehghan and Alireza Khatony

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:36

    Content type: Research article

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  37. A large number of hospital admissions are attributed to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and they are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the causality and preventability...

    Authors: Anum Saqib, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Muhammad Sarfraz and Sadia Iftikhar

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:34

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Recent studies indicate that inflammation may also affect CYP3A4 activity. Associations of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of quinine, with inflammatory biomarkers were investigated in patients undergoing maintenan...

    Authors: Hadi Molanaei, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Olof Heimbürger, Bengt Lindholm, Ulf Diczfalusy, Björn Anderstam, Leif Bertilsson and Peter Stenvinkel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:33

    Content type: Research article

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  39. In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare stent thrombosis (ST) and its different subtypes following treatment with DAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel) versus TAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel + cilostazol).

    Authors: Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:31

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Patterns of opioid dispensing often exhibit substantial temporal and geographical variability, which has implications for public health policy decisions and interventions. The study examined recent trends in p...

    Authors: M Mofizul Islam, Ian S. McRae, Soumya Mazumdar, Paul Simpson, Dennis Wollersheim, Kaniz Fatema and Tony Butler

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:30

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is an RCT investigating the effect of clonidine in medical patients > 65 years with delirium. To assess the dosage regimen and safety measu...

    Authors: Karen Roksund Hov, Bjørn Erik Neerland, Anders Mikal Andersen, Øystein Undseth, Vegard Bruun Wyller, Alasdair M. J. MacLullich, Eva Skovlund, Eirik Qvigstad and Torgeir Bruun Wyller

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:29

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality; because of this it continues to be a major global public health concern. It has believed to kill more than 34 million li...

    Authors: Amsalu Bokore, Belay Korme and Getu Bayisa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:28

    Content type: Research article

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  43. WHO pharmacovigilance indicators have been recommended as a useful tool towards improving pharmacovigilance activities. Nigeria with a myriad of medicines related issues is encouraging the growth of pharmacovi...

    Authors: Abimbola O. Opadeyi, Annie Fourrier-Réglat and Ambrose O. Isah

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:27

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens of public health importance responsible for various forms of infection. Development of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials limited treatment options agai...

    Authors: Sileshi Tadesse, Haile Alemayehu, Admasu Tenna, Getachew Tadesse, Tefaye Sisay Tessema, Workineh Shibeshi and Tadesse Eguale

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:24

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)-induced renal tubular dysfunction and hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) have been given great consideration in the past few years. However, no standard guidance is available due to a ...

    Authors: Nan Chen, Jian-bo Zhang, Qiujie Zhang, Yun-peng Zhao, Li-yan Li, Li-wei Liu, Fei Yu, Xin Yu, Tao Peng and Kuan-xiao Tang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:23

    Content type: Research article

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  46. β-blockers have several indications in critically ill patients and are commonly used. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the use of β-blockers in critically ill patients and mortality.

    Authors: Shmeylan A. Al Harbi, Khalid A. Al Sulaiman, Hani Tamim, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Musharaf Sadat and Yaseen Arabi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:22

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Rivaroxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, has seldom been used in patients with coronary artery disease. In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in addition...

    Authors: Jun Yuan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:19

    Content type: Research article

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