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Clinical pharmacology

This section considers submissions that focus on all areas of clinical pharmacology including rational prescribing, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacovigillance, pharmacoepidemiology and clinical trials.

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  1. A large number of hospital admissions are attributed to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and they are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the causality and preventability...

    Authors: Anum Saqib, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Muhammad Sarfraz and Sadia Iftikhar

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:34

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Recent studies indicate that inflammation may also affect CYP3A4 activity. Associations of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of quinine, with inflammatory biomarkers were investigated in patients undergoing maintenan...

    Authors: Hadi Molanaei, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Olof Heimbürger, Bengt Lindholm, Ulf Diczfalusy, Björn Anderstam, Leif Bertilsson and Peter Stenvinkel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:33

    Content type: Research article

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  3. In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare stent thrombosis (ST) and its different subtypes following treatment with DAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel) versus TAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel + cilostazol).

    Authors: Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:31

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Patterns of opioid dispensing often exhibit substantial temporal and geographical variability, which has implications for public health policy decisions and interventions. The study examined recent trends in p...

    Authors: M Mofizul Islam, Ian S. McRae, Soumya Mazumdar, Paul Simpson, Dennis Wollersheim, Kaniz Fatema and Tony Butler

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:30

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is an RCT investigating the effect of clonidine in medical patients > 65 years with delirium. To assess the dosage regimen and safety measu...

    Authors: Karen Roksund Hov, Bjørn Erik Neerland, Anders Mikal Andersen, Øystein Undseth, Vegard Bruun Wyller, Alasdair M. J. MacLullich, Eva Skovlund, Eirik Qvigstad and Torgeir Bruun Wyller

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:29

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality; because of this it continues to be a major global public health concern. It has believed to kill more than 34 million li...

    Authors: Amsalu Bokore, Belay Korme and Getu Bayisa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:28

    Content type: Research article

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  7. WHO pharmacovigilance indicators have been recommended as a useful tool towards improving pharmacovigilance activities. Nigeria with a myriad of medicines related issues is encouraging the growth of pharmacovi...

    Authors: Abimbola O. Opadeyi, Annie Fourrier-Réglat and Ambrose O. Isah

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:27

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens of public health importance responsible for various forms of infection. Development of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials limited treatment options agai...

    Authors: Sileshi Tadesse, Haile Alemayehu, Admasu Tenna, Getachew Tadesse, Tefaye Sisay Tessema, Workineh Shibeshi and Tadesse Eguale

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:24

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)-induced renal tubular dysfunction and hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) have been given great consideration in the past few years. However, no standard guidance is available due to a ...

    Authors: Nan Chen, Jian-bo Zhang, Qiujie Zhang, Yun-peng Zhao, Li-yan Li, Li-wei Liu, Fei Yu, Xin Yu, Tao Peng and Kuan-xiao Tang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:23

    Content type: Research article

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  10. β-blockers have several indications in critically ill patients and are commonly used. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the use of β-blockers in critically ill patients and mortality.

    Authors: Shmeylan A. Al Harbi, Khalid A. Al Sulaiman, Hani Tamim, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Musharaf Sadat and Yaseen Arabi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:22

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Rivaroxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, has seldom been used in patients with coronary artery disease. In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in addition...

    Authors: Jun Yuan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:19

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The use of prescription medications without the involvement of medical professionals is a growing public health concern. Therefore this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of borrowing and sharing ...

    Authors: James Henry Obol, Peter Akera, Pamela Ochola Atim, Sylvia Awor, Ronald Wanyama, Kenneth Luryama Moi, Bongomin Bodo, Patrick Olwedo Odong, Emmanuel Otto Omony, Hussein Oria, David Musoke and Felix Kaducu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:17

    Content type: Research article

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  13. To describe frequency, preventability and seriousness of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children as cause of emergency department (ED) admission and to evaluate the association between specific factors and t...

    Authors: Niccolò Lombardi, Giada Crescioli, Alessandra Bettiol, Ettore Marconi, Antonio Vitiello, Roberto Bonaiuti, Anna Maria Calvani, Stefano Masi, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Alessandro Mugelli, Lisa Giovannelli and Alfredo Vannacci

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:16

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Self-medication practice (SMP) is the use of medication without the prescription of health care professionals. The major problems associated with self-medication practice have been drug resistance, drug side e...

    Authors: Aster Desalew Kassie, Berhanu Boru Bifftu and Habtamu Sewunet Mekonnen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:15

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The efficacy of tacrolimus (TAC) is variable in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome (NS), which might be related to genetic variation among patients. Therefore, we aim to investigate the effects of CYP3 A4, CY...

    Authors: Min Li, Min Xu, Wei Liu and Xin Gao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:14

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease with no effective treatment. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical stage during the development of fibrosis. To assess...

    Authors: Sun Young Kyung, Dae Young Kim, Jin Young Yoon, Eun Suk Son, Yu Jin Kim, Jeong Woong Park and Sung Hwan Jeong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:13

    Content type: Research article

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  17. A recent in vitro pilot investigation reported Rituximab significantly reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in healthy donors. Chronic fatigue syndrome/Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a debilita...

    Authors: Natalie Eaton, Hélène Cabanas, Cassandra Balinas, Anne Klein, Donald Staines and Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:12

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Accumulation of toxic free cholesterol in hepatocytes may cause hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Volixibat inhibits bile acid reuptake via the apical sodium bile acid transporter located on the luminal surfa...

    Authors: Melissa Palmer, Lee Jennings, Debra G. Silberg, Caleb Bliss and Patrick Martin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:10

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Several countries have used pegylation technology to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of essential drugs. Recently, a novel interferon alfa-2b protein conjugated to four-branched 12 kDa polyethylene glyc...

    Authors: Marisa Boff Costa, Paulo Dornelles Picon, Guilherme Becker Sander, Hugo Nodarse Cuni, Carmen Valenzuela Silva, Rolando Páez Meireles, Ana Carolina Magalhães Andrade Góes, Nadia Maria Batoreu, Maria de Lourdes de Sousa Maia, Elizabeth Maciel Albuquerque, Denise Cristina de Souza Matos and Pedro Lopez Saura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:1

    Content type: Research article

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  20. This study aims at characterizing the in vitro metabolism of cryptolepine using human and rat hepatocytes, identifying metabolites in rat plasma and urine after a single cryptolepine dose, and evaluating the s...

    Authors: Arnold Donkor Forkuo, Charles Ansah, David Pearson, Werner Gertsch, Amanda Cirello, Adam Amaral, Jaimie Spear, Colin W. Wright and Caroline Rynn

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:84

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, afatinib has been shown to have better efficacy in the treatment of ...

    Authors: Chih-Jen Yang, Ming-Ju Tsai, Jen-Yu Hung, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Ying-Ming Tsai, Yu-Chen Tsai, Jui-Feng Hsu, Ta-Chih Liu, Ming-Shyan Huang and Inn-Wen Chong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:82

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The aim of this study was to detect and analyze Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) through Intensive Pharmacovigilance (IPV) in hospitalized pediatric patients to improve drug safety.

    Authors: Alan O. Vázquez-Alvarez, Lorena Michele Brennan-Bourdon, Ana Rosa Rincón-Sánchez, María Cristina Islas-Carbajal and Selene G. Huerta-Olvera

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:79

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Many elderly patients receive psychotropic drugs. Treatment with psychotropic agents is associated with serious side effects including an increased risk of falls and fractures. Several psychotropic drugs are c...

    Authors: Inken Arnold, Kati Straube, Wolfgang Himmel, Stephanie Heinemann, Vivien Weiss, Laura Heyden, Eva Hummers-Pradier and Roland Nau

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:76

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Cancer patients may receive a high number of medications with the potential to prolong QT interval and subsequent TdP (torsades de pointes). This study aimed to identify the prevalence of QT prolonging drugs, ...

    Authors: Qasim Khan, Mohammad Ismail and Sehrash Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:75

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Metolazone is a diuretic, saluretic and antihypertensive chemical compound from the quinazoline category that possesses medicinal features similar to those of other thiazide diuretic drugs. However, the pharma...

    Authors: Xueqing Li, Rutao Wang, Yang Liu, Yun Liu, Heng Zheng, Yabo Feng, Na Zhao, Hongbin Geng, Wanzhi Zhang and Aidong Wen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:73

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Although there are systems for reporting adverse drug reactions (ADR), these safety events remain under reported. The low-cost, low-tech trigger tool method is based on the detection of events through clues, and ...

    Authors: Silvana Maria de Almeida, Aruana Romualdo, Andressa de Abreu Ferraresi, Giovana Roberta Zelezoglo, Alexandre R. Marra and Michael B. Edmond

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:71

    Content type: Research article

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  27. It is well known that the standard doses of a given drug may not have equivalent effects in all patients. To date, the management of depression remains mainly empirical and often poorly evaluated. The developm...

    Authors: Célia Lloret-Linares, Youssef Daali, Sylvie Chevret, Isabelle Nieto, Fanny Molière, Philippe Courtet, Florence Galtier, Raphaëlle-Marie Richieri, Sophie Morange, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Wissam El-Hage, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Haesebaert, Philippe Vignaud, Jerôme Holtzmann, Jean-Luc Cracowski…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:70

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. Older people have a greater disease burden and are more likely than younger to be prescribed medications. They are also more sensitive to adverse effects. With this in mind, a range of medications have been su...

    Authors: Anna Axmon, Magnus Sandberg, Gerd Ahlström and Patrik Midlöv

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:68

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Vildagliptin and pioglitazone/rosiglitazone are emerging Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHAs) which are used to treat patients suffering from Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). In this analysis, we aimed to systemati...

    Authors: Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Girish Janoo, Abhishek Rishikesh Teeluck and Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:66

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists, exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and inhibit endothelial inflammation and dysfunction, which is an...

    Authors: Yun Hyi Ku, Bong-Jun Cho, Min Joo Kim, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Hak C. Jang and Sung Hee Choi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:62

    Content type: Research article

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  31. An estimated 2.7 of the 5.9 million deaths in children under 5 years of age occur in the neonatal period. Severe infections contribute to almost a quarter of these deaths. Mortality due to severe infections in...

    Authors: Nitya Wadhwa, Sudha Basnet, Uma Chandra Mouli Natchu, Laxman P. Shrestha, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Halvor Sommerfelt, Tor A. Strand, Siddarth Ramji, K. C. Aggarwal, Harish Chellani, Anuradha Govil, Mamta Jajoo, N. B. Mathur, Meenakshi Bhatt, Anup Mohta, Imran Ansari…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:56

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Mitiglinide is a widely used agent for diabetic treatment. We established a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to illustrate the relationship between mitiglinide plasma concentration and its glucose...

    Authors: Shijia Liu, Peidong Chen, Yang Zhao, Guoliang Dai, Bingting Sun, Yao Wang, Anwei Ding and Wenzheng Ju

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:54

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The present study investigates changes in spontaneous reporting (SR) compliance and ADR patterns following adoption of a new hospital SR system, and multiple interventions designed for its improvement use unde...

    Authors: Huan Fang, Xiaowen Lin, Jun Zhang, Zhen Hong, Kenji Sugiyama, Takao Nozaki, Tetsuro Sameshima, Susumu Kobayashi, Hiroki Namba and Tetsuya Asakawa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:49

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Increased pain sensitivity is a putative risk factor for chronic pain and consequently for analgesic use. Conversely, analgesic use may be a cause of increased pain sensitivity, e.g., through opioid-induced hy...

    Authors: Per-Jostein Samuelsen, Christopher Sivert Nielsen, Tom Wilsgaard, Audun Stubhaug, Kristian Svendsen and Anne Elise Eggen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:45

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the α-galactosidase A gene mutations. Enzyme-replacement-therapy (ERT) products for FD currently used include agalsidase alfa and aga...

    Authors: Kazuya Tsuboi and Hiroshi Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:43

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Psychotropic drugs are common among old people with dementia, and have been associated with increased mortality. Previous studies have not investigated sex differences in this risk. This study was conducted to...

    Authors: Jon Brännström, Gustaf Boström, Erik Rosendahl, Peter Nordström, Håkan Littbrand, Hugo Lövheim and Yngve Gustafson

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:36

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Drug-resistant microorganism are a growing global danger. Strains of S. aureus have developed resistance to many commonly used antimicrobials due to indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, and treatment becoming a ...

    Authors: Serawit Deyno, Alemayehu Toma, Mesfin Worku and Muluken Bekele

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:35

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The aim of this study is to identify the distribution by municipalities of adverse drug events (ADE) in Portugal, including adverse drug reactions (ADR) and accidental poisoning by drugs (AP), on municipality/...

    Authors: Gianina Scripcaru, Ceu Mateus and Carla Nunes

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:34

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) such as gefitinib can provide better efficacy and prolonged progression free survival (PFS) than cytotoxic chemotherapy for metastatic lung ...

    Authors: Chih-Jen Yang, Jen-Yu Hung, Ming-Ju Tsai, Kuan-Li Wu, Ta-Chih Liu, Shah-Hwa Chou, Jui-Ying Lee, Jui-Sheng Hsu, Ming-Shyan Huang and Inn-Wen Chong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:21

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Nowadays, canagliflozin monotherapy, or in combination with other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), is often administered in patients who are treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, we aimed to ...

    Authors: Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Girish Janoo and Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:19

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are reported to have BP-lowering effect in addition to blood glucose-lowering effect, however, its mechanism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate ...

    Authors: Shin Kawasoe, Yukiko Maruguchi, Shoko Kajiya, Hitoshi Uenomachi, Masaaki Miyata, Mariko Kawasoe, Takuro Kubozono and Mitsuru Ohishi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:23

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Adherence to prescribed medication is an imperative issue which can be directly linked with the management of chronic diseases like hypertension; failure to adhere can affect the effectiveness of medication as...

    Authors: Habtamu Sewunet Mekonnen, Mignote Hailu Gebrie, Kokeb Haile Eyasu and Abebaw Addis Gelagay

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:27

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Many patients with acromegaly require medical treatment that includes somatostatin analogs (SSAs). Long-acting SSA formulations are widely used, due in part to increased patient convenience and increased treat...

    Authors: Michelle H. Gurel, Yi Han, Andrea L. Stevens, Aaron Furtado and David Cox

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:22

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Surotomycin, a novel, orally administered, cyclic, lipopeptide antibacterial in development for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, has demonstrated minimal intestinal absorption in animal...

    Authors: Gurudatt Chandorkar, Qiao Zhan, Julie Donovan, Shruta Rege and Hernando Patino

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:24

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Adverse reactions associated to anti-thyroid drugs include fever, rash, arthralgia, agranulocytosis and hepatitis that are thought to be hypersensitivity reactions. Five cases of pleural effusion associated to...

    Authors: Pedro Gaspar-da-Costa, Filipa Duarte Silva, Júlia Henriques, Sónia do Vale, Sandra Braz, João Meneses Santos and Rui M.M. Victorino

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:16

    Content type: Case report

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  46. Clarithromycin (CAM), a representative macrolide antibiotic, has been used widely at low doses for long-term therapy of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Anti-inflammatory effects of macrolide antibiotics ...

    Authors: Kuninori Iwayama, Ayuko Kusakabe, Keisuke Ohtsu, Takahiro Nawano, Ryosuke Tatsunami, Ko-ichi Ohtaki, Yoshiko Tampo and Nobumasa Hayase

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:15

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Non-prescription access to antimicrobials is common, and self-prescribing is increasingly popular in Russian society. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of community pharmacists regarding antibi...

    Authors: Tatiana Belkina, Natalia Duvanova, Julia Karbovskaja, Jurjen Duintjer Tebbens and Jiri Vlcek

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:11

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of disability and premature death. Despite European guidelines advocating the use of medical therapies in CVD, many patients still do not achieve the guideline-rec...

    Authors: Valentín Fuster, Francesc Gambús, Aldo Patriciello, Margaretha Hamrin and Diederick E. Grobbee

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:10

    Content type: Debate

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