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Clinical pharmacology

This section considers submissions that focus on all areas of clinical pharmacology including rational prescribing, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacovigillance, pharmacoepidemiology and clinical trials.

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  1. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the co-administration of fimasartan and rosuv...

    Authors: Moo-Yong Rhee, Taehoon Ahn, Kiyuk Chang, Shung Chull Chae, Tae-Hyun Yang, Wan Joo Shim, Tae Soo Kang, Jae-Kean Ryu, Deuk-Young Nah, Tae-Ho Park, In-Ho Chae, Seung Woo Park, Hae-Young Lee, Seung-Jea Tahk, Young Won Yoon, Chi Young Shim…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:2

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Combination lithium, a mood stabilizer, and risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, is widely used for treatment of psychotic disorders. Rare reports concern severe adverse drug reaction in multiple organ...

    Authors: Chih-Wei Hsu, Yu Lee, Chun-Yi Lee and Pao-Yen Lin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:59

    Content type: Case report

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  3. More potent antitumor activity is desired in Interferon (IFN)-treated cancer patients. This could be achieved by combining IFN alpha and IFN gamma. The aim of this work was to characterize the pharmacokinetics...

    Authors: Idrian García-García, Ignacio Hernández-González, Alina Díaz-Machado, Carlos A. González-Delgado, Sonia Pérez-Rodríguez, Yanelda García-Vega, Rosario Campos-Mojena, Ángela D. Tuero-Iglesias, Carmen M. Valenzuela-Silva, Alieski Cruz-Ramírez, Alis Martín-Trujillo, Héctor Santana-Milián, Pedro A. López-Saura and Iraldo Bello-Rivero

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:58

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Tenofovir, one of antiretroviral medication to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is known to cause proximal renal tubular acidosis such as Fanconi syndrome, but cases of distal renal tubular ...

    Authors: Kentaro Iwata, Manabu Nagata, Shuhei Watanabe and Shinichi Nishi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:52

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Ghana changed their antimalarial drug policy from monotherapies to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies in 2004 in order to provide more efficacious medicines for treatment of malaria. The policy change can...

    Authors: Mathilda Tivura, Isaac Asante, Albert van Wyk, Stephaney Gyaase, Naiela Malik, Emmanuel Mahama, Dana M. Hostetler, Facundo M. Fernandez, Kwaku Poku Asante, Harparkash Kaur and Seth Owusu-Agyei

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:48

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The association between long-term metformin use and low vitamin B12 levels has been proven. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed considerable variation among the...

    Authors: Marwan A. Ahmed, George Muntingh and Paul Rheeder

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:44

    Content type: Research article

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  7. With the increasing publicity of marijuana due to recent legislation, it is pertinent that the effects of fetal exposure to the drug are assessed. While in utero cannabis exposure has been associated with early p...

    Authors: Joseph Friedrich, Dara Khatib, Keon Parsa, Ariana Santopietro and G. Ian Gallicano

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:45

    Content type: Review

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  8. In some countries the misuse and diversion of prescribed opioid analgesic is increasing considerably, but there is no official data regarding the situation in Colombia. The aim of this study was to identify al...

    Authors: Maria G. Garcia-Orjuela, Lineth Alarcon-Franco, Juan C. Sanchez-Fernandez, Yuli Agudelo and Andres F. Zuluaga

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:42

    Content type: Research article

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  9. It has been observed that the efficacy of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors as compared to the placebo groups in some clinical trials conducted in China is weaker than that in trials conducted outside ...

    Authors: Lingyu He, Shu Liu, Chun Shan, Yingmei Tu, Zhengqing Li and Xiaohua Douglas Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:40

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The elderly are frequently exposed to drug related problems causing hospitalizations and increased costs of care. Information about Romanian prescribing practices among the elderly and potential medication ass...

    Authors: Daniela Petruta Primejdie, Marius Traian Bojita and Adina Popa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:38

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The number of medication errors occurring in healthcare is large and many are preventable. To analyze medication errors and evaluate whether Positive Deviance is effective in reducing them.

    Authors: Fabio Teixeira Ferracini, Alexandre R. Marra, Claudio Schvartsman, Oscar F. Pavão dos Santos, Elivane da Silva Victor, Neila Maria Marques Negrini, Wladimir Mendes Borges Filho and Michael B. Edmond

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:36

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Prescription writing is a process which transfers the therapeutic message from the prescriber to the patient through the pharmacist. Prescribing errors, drug duplication and potential drug-drug interactions (p...

    Authors: Devarajan Rathish, Sivaswamy Bahini, Thanikai Sivakumar, Thilani Thiranagama, Tharmarajah Abarajithan, Buddhika Wijerathne, Channa Jayasumana and Sisira Siribaddana

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:27

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The choice of vasopressor use in the intensive care unit (ICU) depends primarily on provider preference. This study aims to describe the rate of vasopressor utilization and the trends of each vasoactive agent ...

    Authors: Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Andrew M. Harrison, Perliveh Carrera, Narat Srivali, Wonngarm Kittamongkolchai, Aysen Erdogan and Kianoush B. Kashani

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:19

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Abatacept (ABA) is a fusion receptor protein containing the CTLA-4 domain that prevents the activation of naïve T cells by binding the CD80 and CD86 molecules expressed on the surface of dendritic cells, indic...

    Authors: Rossella Talotta, Fabiola Atzeni and Piercarlo Sarzi Puttini

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:17

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Opioid maintenance treatment with methadone is regarded as gold standard in the therapy of opioid dependence. Identification of the ‘right’ methadone dose, however, remains challenging. We wanted to explore if...

    Authors: Stephan Walcher, John Koc, Volker Reichel, Frank Schlote, Uwe Verthein and Jens Reimer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:15

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) has a detrimental effect on morbidity and mortality for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is therefore logical to attempt to eradicate new isolate...

    Authors: H. Kitt, W. Lenney and F. J. Gilchrist

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:14

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Many antibiotics have no effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes, which necessitates the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can lead to increased risk of antibiotic resistance....

    Authors: Josef Yayan, Beniam Ghebremedhin and Kurt Rasche

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:10

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of arterial hypertension are different in obese and lean patients, hypertension guidelines do not include specific recommendations for obesity-related hypertension and, ...

    Authors: Mauro Cataldi, Ornella di Geronimo, Rossella Trio, Antonella Scotti, Andrea Memoli, Domenico Capone and Bruna Guida

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:9

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics due to its high antibacterial potency, wide spectrum of activity and low potential for toxicity. However, the global trend shows misuse of this drug. Th...

    Authors: Alemayehu Sileshi, Admasu Tenna, Mamo Feyissa and Workineh Shibeshi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:7

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of postoperative wound infections especially among patients undergoing orthopedics surgery. However, there is dearth of information on the clinical effectiveness...

    Authors: Joel M. Marwa, Isidor H. Ngayomela, Jeremiah Seni and Stephen E. Mshana

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:42

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Literature shows that continuity of care from a primary care physician is associated with better patient satisfaction and preventive care. This may also have an effect on patients’ use of antibiotics. This stu...

    Authors: Tai Pong Lam, Yuk Tsan Wun, Kwok Fai Lam and Kai Sing Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:40

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Amikacin and kanamycin are mainly used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), especially in developing countries where the burden of MDR-TB is highest. Their protracted use in MDR-TB treatment...

    Authors: Evans L. Sagwa, Nunurai Ruswa, Farai Mavhunga, Timothy Rennie, Hubert G. M. Leufkens and Aukje K. Mantel-Teeuwisse

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:36

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Increasing recognition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among Aboriginal children, adolescents and young adults is a public health challenge. We investigated the pattern of prescription stimu...

    Authors: Manonita Ghosh, C. D’Arcy J. Holman and David B. Preen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:35

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Interpreting clinical guideline adherence and the appropriateness of medication regimens requires consideration of individual patient and caregiver factors. Factors leading to initiation of a medication may di...

    Authors: Sophia L. Johnson, Mari Palta, Christie M. Bartels, Carolyn T. Thorpe, Jennifer M. Weiss and Maureen A. Smith

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:34

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae has been reported yet they serve as the last line treatment for severe infections in Uganda and other countries. This resistance often le...

    Authors: John N Kateregga, Ronah Kantume, Collins Atuhaire, Musisi Nathan Lubowa and James G Ndukui

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:14

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Cytarabine is used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Low-dose cytarabine can be combined with valproic acid and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as AML-stabilizing treatment. We have investigated...

    Authors: Elisabeth Ersvaer, Annette K Brenner, Kristin Vetås, Håkon Reikvam and Øystein Bruserud

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:12

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Self-medication with antibiotics may result in antimicrobial resistance and its high prevalence is of particular concern in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC) like Guatemala. A better understanding of self-...

    Authors: Brooke M Ramay, Paola Lambour and Alejandro Cerón

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:11

    Content type: Research article

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  28. In vitro and animal experiments have shown that the transport and signaling of β2-adrenergic agonists are pH-sensitive. Inhaled albuterol, a hydrophilic β2-adrenergic agonist, is widely used for the treatment of ...

    Authors: Jose E Cancado, Eliana S Mendes, Johana Arana, Gabor Horvath, Maria E Monzon, Matthias Salathe and Adam Wanner

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:9

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The patterns and determinants of saxagliptin use among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are unknown in real-world settings. We compared the characteristics of T2DM patients who were new initiators...

    Authors: M Elle Saine, Dena M Carbonari, Craig W Newcomb, Melissa S Nezamzadeh, Kevin Haynes, Jason A Roy, Serena Cardillo, Sean Hennessy, Crystal N Holick, Daina B Esposito, Arlene M Gallagher, Harshvinder Bhullar, Brian L Strom and Vincent Lo Re III

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:8

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The Swiss label of oral fingolimod (0.5 mg once daily) requires a 6-hour first dose observation (FDO) including an ECG prior to and 6 hours after the first intake but in comparison to other countries such as A...

    Authors: Simon P Ramseier, Serge Roth and Adam Czaplinski

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:7

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Irrational antibiotic use is common in rural areas of China, despite the growing recognition of the importance of appropriate prescribing to contain antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze ...

    Authors: Qiang Sun, Oliver J Dyar, Lingbo Zhao, Göran Tomson, Lennart E Nilsson, Malin Grape, Yanyan Song, Ling Yan and Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:6

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is one of the most influential factors that affect patient quality of life; thus, preventing this adverse event could lead to better patient outcome. Standard preventiv...

    Authors: Masahiro Inoue, Manabu Shoji, Naomi Shindo, Kazunori Otsuka, Masatomo Miura and Hiroyuki Shibata

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:5

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Efavirenz (EFV) therapeutic response and toxicity are associated with high inter-individual variability attributed to variation in its pharmacokinetics. Plasma concentrations below 1 μg/ml may result in virolo...

    Authors: Milcah Dhoro, Simbarashe Zvada, Bernard Ngara, Charles Nhachi, Gerald Kadzirange, Prosper Chonzi and Collen Masimirembwa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:4

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Sudan revised its malaria treatment policy accordingly in 2004. ...

    Authors: Abeer Abuzeid Atta Elmannan, Khalid Abdelmutalab Elmardi, Yassir Ali Idris, Jonathan M Spector, Nahid Abdelgadir Ali and Elfatih Mohamed Malik

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:3

    Content type: Research article

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  35. This study aimed to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in DNA repair or metabolism of taxanes or platinum could predict toxicity or response to first-line chemotherapy i...

    Authors: Sandrina Lambrechts, Diether Lambrechts, Evelyn Despierre, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Dominiek Smeets, Philip R Debruyne, Vincent Renard, Philippe Vroman, Daisy Luyten, Patrick Neven, Frédéric Amant, Karin Leunen and Ignace Vergote

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:2

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Patients may experience nausea and vomiting when undergoing chemotherapy or surgery requiring anesthesia. Serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are effective antiemetics, yet may cause a...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Charlene Soobiah, Wing Hui, Jesmin Antony, Vladi Struchkov, Brian Hutton, Brenda Hemmelgarn, David Moher and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:1

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) has been studied more extensively among HIV-infected patients than among HIV-uninfected people. Using data from a pre-exposure trial – FEM-PrEP –...

    Authors: Justin Mandala, Kavita Nanda, Meng Wang, Irith De Baetselier, Jennifer Deese, Johan Lombaard, Fredrick Owino, Mookho Malahleha, Rachel Manongi, Douglas Taylor and Lut Van Damme

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:77

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The prevalence of self -medication with antibiotics is quite high in developing countries as opposed to developed countries. Antibiotics are often taken erroneously for certain ailments, without having the app...

    Authors: Syed Jawad Shah, Hamna Ahmad, Rija Binte Rehan, Sidra Najeeb, Mirrah Mumtaz, Muhammad Hashim Jilani, Muhammad Sharoz Rabbani, Muhammad Zakariya Alam, Saba Farooq and M Masood Kadir

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:74

    Content type: Research article

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  39. National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in the UK use a system of coding for patient episodes. The coding system used is the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). There are ICD-10 codes which may b...

    Authors: Jennifer R Bellis, Jamie J Kirkham, Anthony J Nunn and Munir Pirmohamed

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:72

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Renal toxicity is a clinical problem that affects 28 − 42% of patients undergoing treatment with cisplatin. Renal toxicity can be minimized by high volume hydration with mannitol diuresis. Recent reports have ...

    Authors: Takako Oka, Tatsuo Kimura, Tomohiro Suzumura, Naoki Yoshimoto, Toshiyuki Nakai, Norio Yamamoto, Kuniomi Matsuura, Shigeki Mitsuoka, Naruo Yoshimura, Shinzoh Kudoh and Kazuto Hirata

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:70

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive drug that is used to lower the activity of the patient’s immune system to prevent organ rejection. Unfortunately, there is limited data regarding the therapeutic equivalency ...

    Authors: Ashraf G Madian, Arun Panigrahi, Minoli A Perera and Navin Pinto

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:69

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Polymorphisms of Arylamine N- acetyltransferase (NAT) that contribute to diverse susceptibilities of some autoimmune diseases are also linked to the metabolism of several drugs including sulfasalazine (SSZ). The ...

    Authors: Zhi-duo Hou, Zheng-yu Xiao, Yao Gong, Yu-ping Zhang and Qing Yu Zeng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:64

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a life-limiting lung disease with considerable impact on patients and carers as the disease progresses. Currently few treatments are available. We aimed to evaluate the c...

    Authors: Emma Loveman, Vicky R Copley, Jill L Colquitt, David A Scott, Andy J Clegg, Jeremy Jones, Katherine MA O’Reilly, Sally Singh, Claudia Bausewein and Athol Wells

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:63

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Pharmacokinetic interactions between rifampicin and protease inhibitors (PIs) complicate the management of HIV-associated tuberculosis. Rifabutin is an alternative rifamycin, for patients requiring PIs. Recent...

    Authors: Suhashni Naiker, Cathy Connolly, Lubbe Wiesner, Tracey Kellerman, Tarylee Reddy, Anthony Harries, Helen McIlleron, Christian Lienhardt and Alexander Pym

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:61

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Inhaled endotoxin induces airways’neutrophilia, in human. TNF-a being a key cytokine in the response to endotoxin, the effect of anti-TNF on the endotoxin-induced neutrophilic response was evaluated among heal...

    Authors: Olivier Michel, Phong Huy Duc Dinh, Virginie Doyen and Francis Corazza

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:60

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Administration of intermittent high doses of vitamin D3 is increasingly used as a strategy for rapid normalization of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) blood concentrations in patients with vitamin D deficiency. ...

    Authors: Jody van den Ouweland, Hanneke Fleuren, Miranda Drabbe and Hans Vollaard

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:57

    Content type: Case report

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  47. Despite recent development of direct acting antivirals for treatment of hepatitis C, the current standard of care may still include pegylated-interferon, which is associated with frequent and, at times, seriou...

    Authors: Davide Mangioni, Alessandro Soria, Laura Brighina, Alessandra Bandera, Carlo Ferrarese and Andrea Gori

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:56

    Content type: Case report

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  48. Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are distressing for patients and have important public health implications. We identified the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression, and fatal...

    Authors: Kyla H Thomas, Richard M Martin, John Potokar, Munir Pirmohamed and David Gunnell

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:54

    Content type: Research article

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